初中英语句子成分详解

 时间:2017-08-04 04:33:37 贡献者:博学多才love

导读:英语句子成分The students of Class Two are seriously reading the book written by Lu Xun. 按句子成分划分,此句为: The students of Class Two are seriously reading the book written by Lu Xun. (主语) (定语) (谓语)(状语) (谓语)

初中英语之句子成分,句子种类详解
初中英语之句子成分,句子种类详解

英语句子成分The students of Class Two are seriously reading the book written by Lu Xun. 按句子成分划分,此句为: The students of Class Two are seriously reading the book written by Lu Xun. (主语) (定语) (谓语)(状语) (谓语) (宾语) (定语)按意群划分,此句为: The students of Class Two are seriously reading the book written by Lu Xun. 一、英语各种成分的基本含义及用法 (一) 、主语 主语是全句谈论的中心话题。

我们在说一句话的时候,首先要明确我们讲的是“哪个 人”?或者是一件“什么事”?或者是一件“什么物体”,等。

这些代表“哪个人”、“什么事”、 “什么物体”等的部分就是句子的主语。

主语是指句子的某个部分,它可能是一个词,也可能是一个词组,还有可能是一个从 句,甚至一句话中会有几个并列的主语等等。

所以,英语中很多词类(或词组、从句)都可以 做主语。

另外,英语中还有一种特殊的主语形式叫“形式主语”,例如:It .... that ...句式等。

1. Peter is a well-known pianist. (名词作主语) 2. Two-thirds of the students are boys in our school. ( 数词词组作主语) 3. He likes reading storybooks. (代词作主语) 4. To swim in Kunming Lake is a great pleasure. (不定式短语作主语) 5. What we shall do next is not yet decided. (从句作主语) 6. It took us two hours to travel around the city by subway. (It 是形式主语, to travel...部分是真正的主语) 请指出下列句中主语的中心词。

1. The teacher with two of her students is walking into the classroom. 2. There is a bird flying in the sky. 3. The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. 4. It is very difficult to do today's homework without your help. (二) 、谓语

在明确了主语后,我们再来说谓语。

谓语是用来回答、说明、解释主语“做什么”、“是 什么”、“怎么样”等的部分。

英语句子中,除少数情况外,谓语必须是动词。

而且,除了倒 装等特殊情况外,谓语的位置相对来说是固定的,它总是位于主语的后面。

1. His parents are teachers. (系动词和表语一起作谓语) 2. We study hard. (行为动词作谓语) 3. We have finished reading the book. (助动词和行为动词一起作谓语) 4. He can speak English. (情态动词和行为动词一起作谓语) 请选出下列句中谓语的中心词。

1. I don't like the picture on the wall. 2. The days get longer and longer when summer comes. 3. Do you usually go to school by bus? 4. Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? 5. What I want to tell you is this. (三) 、宾语 从语法角度说,及物动词后面要接宾语 (介词后也有宾语) 。

从意义上来说,宾语是动 作的对象、目标。

宾语是对谓语动词的进一步说明和解释。

1. We often help him. (代词作宾语) 2. He likes to play basketball. (不定式作宾语) 3. We enjoy listening to the music. (动名词短语作宾语) 4. She said that she felt sick. (从句做宾语) The sun gives us light and warmth. (us 为间接宾语,light and warmth 为直接宾语) 1、间接宾语多指人,直接宾语多指物。

可以带两个宾语的动词有:bring, give, show, send, pass, tell 等。

间接宾语一般放在直接宾语的前面。

2、如果强调直接宾语,可把直接宾语放在间接宾语的前面,但间接宾语前须加介词 “to” 或“for”。

接 to 的动词有:give, bring, pass, lend, sell, send, show, tell, write 等。

Give your mother the letter. =Give the letter to your mother. 直接宾语 间接宾语

接 for 的动词有:buy, find, cook, draw, get, sing 等。

Can you find me my bag? =Can you find my bag for me? 直接宾语 这正是:人前物后看清楚,换位要加 for 或 to。

请挑出下列句中的宾语。

1. My brother hasn't done his homework. 2. People all over the world speak English. 3. How many new words did you learn last class? 4. The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. 5. You will find it useful after you leave school. 请划出下列句中的直接宾语和间接宾语。

1. Please tell us a story. 2. My father bought a new computer for me last week. 3. Mr. Brown is going to teach us chemistry next term. 4. Could you please pass the pen to Tom? 5. Did he leave any message for me? (四) 、宾语补足语 现在一般认为,宾语补足语是对宾语进行进一步的补充说明。

宾语补足语主要与英语及物 动词有关。

这个问题我想分两点来说明。

1、英语中有些及物动词,不但会涉及到一个对象(宾语),还会使宾语产生一种结果。

动词 引发宾语的结果就是宾语补足语。

例如: We call him Little Tom. (称呼的对象是 him, 称呼的结果是 Little Tom. Little Tom 就是宾语 补足语。

) They made her happy. (make 使 her 怎么样了?happy 作进一步的补充说明, 那么 happy 是补语。

) I find smoking bad for health. (find 的对象是 smoking, 结论是 bad for health.) 这一类带宾语补足语的动词有:(1) (把…看成…) regard, see;(2) (把…当成…) treat, take; (3) (把…认为是…) consider, look up, refer to, accept, acknowledge ;(4) (把…描述为…) describe, use, show, organize, express 等。

间接宾语

2、英语中表示看、听之类的动词,不仅看到一个人(宾语),还会看到他在做什么事。

宾语 所做的事也是宾语补足语。

例如: I saw a bird in a cage. (看到小鸟在笼子里,“在笼子里”是宾语补足语。

) We heard her singing a song. (听到她在唱歌,“在唱歌”是宾语补足语。

) 这一类带宾语补足语动词有:see, hear, notice, watch, feel, observe 等。

请找出下列句中的宾语补足语。

1. He asked her to take the boy to the doctor’s. 2. She found it difficult to finish the work today. 3. We call her Lily sometimes. 4. I saw Jerry get on the bus. 5. Did you hear anyone crying outside the door just now? 补充说明: I'm going to paint it pink. 句子中的 it 显然是宾语。

但是主语将要做的并不是 it,而是 paint it pink。

pink 是句子 中的宾语补足语。

它和宾语之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,也就是说从逻辑上来讲,是执行了 paint 的动作。

句子中的 pink 是形容词做宾语补足语。

能够充当宾补的还有宾语补足语的大致有:不定 式,现在分词,过去分词,形容词,副词,介宾短语等。

一般情况下,宾补通常紧跟在宾 语之后。

比如: I find learning English difficult.(difficult 是形容词做宾补) I saw the kite up and down. (up and down 是副词做宾补) Tom made the girl cry. (cry 是省略不定式符号 to 的动词不定式) *常跟复合宾语的动词有:call,name,make,think,find,leave,keep,nominate(任 命),choose,elect(选举),define(定义),regard, see, recognize,treat, take,consider, look up, refer to, accept, acknowledge,describe,depict(描述),represent(表现出),declare(宣称),denounce, employ(雇佣), use, show, organize, express (五) 、表语 英语有一类动词叫系动词。

系动词是侧重于表示人或事物状态、性质的动词,它没有明 显的外观的动作形式, 例如: (am/is/are)(是), get(变得), sound(听起来), look, seem(看起来), be

feel(感到)等等。

与系动词连用的部分叫“系表结构”,“表”就是“表语”的意思。

注意:系表 结构合起来共同组成谓语,来说明主语的状态、性质等。

例如: I am a teacher. (系动词 am + 表语 a teacher) They are on the playground now. (系动词 are + 表语 on the playground.) It sounds interesting. (sound 为系动词,interesting 为表语) 请划出下列句中的表语。

1. The leaves have turned yellow. 2. She was the first to learn about it. 3. The old man is feeling better now. 4. Why is Mrs. Smith worried about her son? 5. The kids are really interested in joining the chess club. (六) 、定语 定语是修饰名词或代词,说明人或事物的状态、性质、数量等的词。

请记住:定语最关 键的一点是,定语是用来修饰、限定人和事物(即名词)特点的成分。

动词不可能有定语,形 容词也没有。

一般情况下,定语可以是一个词,也可能是几个词或一个词组,也可能是一 个从句(定语从句)。

例如: The black bike is mine. (单个的词作定语) The office is ten minutes’ walk from here. (词组作定语) This is a book which tells about rocket technology. (从句作定语)英语中定语的位置可以在名词前面,也可以在名词后面,特别是放在名词后面的定语, 与中文习惯不同,同学们要注意分辨清楚。

He works in a shoe factory. This is my book, not your book. Is there anything important in today’s newspaper? The boy, tired, hungry and thirsty, fell down on the beach. 请划出下列句中的定语。

1. What is your family name? 2. The boy in blue is Tom. 3. The man downstairs was trying to sleep.

4. I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. 5. There are five boys who will play the game. (七) 、状语 上面说了,定语是说明名词特点、性质的,而状语则是说明动词如何如何的,例如:动 作在什么时间发生,什么地点发生,什么条件下发生,为什么目的发生,等等。

状语的核 心是:状语是修饰动词的,只有动词才有状语。

一般来说,状语的位置比较灵活,它可以放在句子的任何位置,可以放在句首、句中或 者句末,而不一定是紧跟在动词的前后位置。

我们在翻译的时候,要视具体情况而定。

同 样,状语可以是一个单词,也可以是几个单词或词组,也可以是一个状语从句。

例如: We often help him. (often 副词,位置在 help 前面。

)I really don't like the food. (也可以说:I don't like the food really. ) (注意状语 really 的位 置。

) He did his homework carefully at home. (carefully 副词; home 是词组, at 位置都在 did 后 面。

) When I grow up, I am going to be a teacher. (when 从句是时间状语,在句首;to be...是目的 状语。

) 请划出下列句中的状语。

1. There was a big smile on her face. 2. Every night he practices playing the piano. 3. We must work hard to pass the exam. 4. She loves the library because she loves books. 5. He began to learn English when he was eleven. 利用口诀综述以上内容:主在前、谓在中,宾语、状语后面冲。

短语定语主宾后,形、 代定语主宾前。

间宾直宾紧相依,直、间之间 to、for 连。

宾补位于宾语后,地状常在时 状前。

二、句子成分的划分 句子成分构成了英语中各式各样的句子。

句子用词准确、合乎语法规范是一篇文章最 起码的要求。

英语句子虽然千变万化,但就一个简单句来说,其基本结构不外乎以下五种: 序号 汉语名称 英语名称 简称

1 2 3 4主语+谓语 主语+谓语+表语 主语+谓语+宾语 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直 接宾语 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补Subject + Verb Subject + Verb + Predicative Subject + Verb + Object Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object Subject + Verb + Object +S V S V P S V O S Od S C V O V Oi5 足语 6 There be 句型 ComplementGroup one 1. Mr. Green swims every summer. 2. Mr. Green can swim across the river. 3. Mr. Green can swim and swims every summer. 分析:本组句子都是“主+谓”结构( S + vi. )。

其中第 1 句是简单谓语,第 2 句是复合谓语, 第 3 句是并列谓语。

Group two 1. Mr. Spun is our English teacher. 2. He seems to know everything. 3. His hair turned gray. 分析:本组句子都是“主+谓+表”结构,也叫做“主+系+表”结构( S + link v. + P )。

英语中常见的系动词有:(1) 表状态的 be;(2) 表“看(听/闻/摸)起来”的 look, seem, appear, sound, smell, feel 等;(3) 表示变化的 become, turn, get, fall, go 等;(4) 表示 保持的 keep, stay, remain 等。

在系动词后作表语的主要是形容词、名词、介词短语、 非谓语动词,以及少数副词等也可作表语。

Group three 1. I’ve just got a copy of this book. 2. Do you want to read this book? 3. I’ll finish reading the book overnight. 4. We often talk about good books.

5. I think this book is well worth reading. 分析:本组句子都是“主+谓+宾”结构( S + vt. + O )。

英语中的及物动词(vt.)和介词后 通常要接宾语,不及物动词(vi.)不可直接带宾语;充当宾语的常有:名词、代词 (宾格) 、不定式、动名词和宾语从句。

Group four 1. We call him Mr. White. 2. We would like him to teach us. 3. He makes his lessons lively and interesting. 4. We think it our duty to serve in the army. 5. The situation makes it necessary that our product should be improved. 分析:本组句子都是“主+谓+ 复合宾语(宾语+宾补)”结构。

宾补用于补充说明宾语干什 么、是什么、怎么样,故宾语和宾补有逻辑上的主谓或主表关系;充当宾补的主要 是形容词,名词、介词短语、不定式、分词,以及个别副词也可作补语。

注意:当不定式或从句作宾语,又需接补语时,要用 it 放在宾语的位置作形式宾语,将作 宾语的不定式或从句移到补语的后面,如本组的第 4 句和第 5 句。

Group five 1. Jennifer teaches us English. 2. Today he gave me some good advice on English study and I bought him a gift. 分析:本组句子都是“主+谓+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语)” 。

表示人的间接宾语通常放在 表示物的直接宾语的前面,若要将间接宾语放到直接宾语的后面,需要加介词 to 或 for,如本组第 2 句可改写为: Today he gave some good advice on English study to me and I bought a gift for him. 分析下列句子成分。

1. The teacher got very angry. 2. Last night I wrote a letter. 3. The boy told me his story. 4. We watched the train leaving the station. 5. He often goes somewhere beautiful and quiet on vacation. 用括号内所提示的基本句型将下列句子译成英语。

1. 你的故事听起来很有趣。

(主语 + 系动词 + 表语)

2. 我妹妹是在农村长大的。

(主语 + 谓语) 3. 他因为车子开得太快而违反了交通规则。

(主语 + 谓语 + 宾语) 4. 下学期谁教你们生物?(主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语) 5. 他总是把他的卧室收拾得干干净净。

(主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语) 三、对各种句子成分提问 1、对主语提问: Cindy reviews her English lessons in the reading-room every evening. → Who reviews his English lessons in the reading-room every evening? 2、对谓语提问: Cindy reviews her English lessons in the reading-room every evening. → What does Cindy do in the reading-room every evening? 3、对宾语提问: Cindy reviews her English lessons in the reading-room every evening. → What does Cindy review in the reading-room every evening? 4、对定语提问: Cindy reviews her English lessons in the reading-room every evening. → What lessons does Cindy review in the reading-room every evening? 5、对状语提问: Cindy reviews her English lessons in the reading-room every evening. → When does Cindy review her English lessons in the reading-room? Where does Cindy review her English lessons every evening? 6、对表语提问: The teacher’s office is on the second floor. 7、对定语提问: The teacher’s office is on the second floor. → Whose office is on the second floor? → Which is the teacher’s office?教给大家一个歌谣,帮助你们记住句子的主要成分。

句子成分很重要,七大名称莫混 淆。

主语、谓语是主体,还有宾、定、补、状、表。

I. 请指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分。

1. The apples tasted sweet. 2. Would you please tell me your address?

3. He noticed a man enter the room. 4. Do you have anything else to say? 5. To be honest, your pronunciation is not so good. 6. Traveling all over the world is her dream. II. 单项选择。

1. _________ will leave for Beijing in two days. A. Now there the man C. The man who is here now B. The man here now D. The man is here now2. He found the street much _________. A. crowd B. crowding C. crowded D. crowdedly3. I need a quiet room__________. A. to study in B. study C. studying D. to study4. I think _________ necessary to learn English well. A. its B. it C. that D. that is5. Although it's raining hard, _________ are still working in the fields. A. but they B. and they C. they D. since they6. _________, Tom becomes very interested in business. A. His dream comes true C. Make his dream come true III. 翻译练习。

主谓结构 (主语+不及物动词) 1. 会议将持续两个小时。

________________________________________________ 2. 五年前我住在北京。

________________________________________________ B. To make his dream come true D. He makes his dream come true主谓宾结构 (主语+及物动词+宾语) 3. 你们必须在两周内看完这些书。

________________________________________________ 4. 他不知道说什么好。

________________________________________________ 主系表结构 (主语+系动词+表语) 5. 十 五 岁 他 就 成 为 有 名 的 钢 琴 家 了 。

________________________________________________ 双宾语结构 (主语+双宾动词+间接宾语+直接宾语)

6. 请把那本字典递给我好吗?________________________________________________ 复合宾语结构 (主语+动词+宾语+宾语补足语) 7. 每 天 早 晨 我 们 都 听 到 他 大 声 朗 读 英 语 。

________________________________________________ 8. 那 可 怕 的 声 音 把 孩 子 们 吓 坏 了 。

________________________________________________

 
 

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