句子成分及基本句型讲解练习(初中英语)

 时间:2018-03-14 19:58:37 贡献者:费国玉

导读:句子成分及基本句型【句子的成分】在英文中句子成分包括:主语、谓语、宾语(直接宾语、间接宾语)、表语、定语和状语、宾语补 足语等。 (一)主语:主语是谓语讲述的对象,表示

初中英语基本句型翻译
初中英语基本句型翻译

句子成分及基本句型【句子的成分】在英文中句子成分包括:主语、谓语、宾语(直接宾语、间接宾语)、表语、定语和状语、宾语补 足语等。

(一)主语:主语是谓语讲述的对象,表示所说的“是什么”或“是谁”。

一般由名词、代词、不 定式或相当于名词的词或短语来充当。

它在句首。

如: (1)Lucy is a beautifulnurse. (名词作主语)(2)He reads newspapers every day. (代词作主语) (3)Smoking is harmful to the health. (动名词作主语) (4)To swim in Kunming Lake is a great pleasure.(不定式作主语) (二)谓语 说明主语“做什么”“是什么”或“怎么样”。

谓语(谓语部分里主要的词) 必须是动词 。

谓语和 主语在人称和数两方面必须一致。

它在主语后面。

如:His parents are teachers. We study hard. (系动词和表语一起作谓语)(行为动词作谓语) (助动词和行为动词一起作谓语)We don’t finish reading the book. He can speak English. (三)宾语(情态动词和行为动词一起作谓语)宾语是动作、行为的对象,由名词、代词、不定式或相当于名词的词、短语来担任,它和及物动词 一起说明主语做什么。

一般放在谓语之后。

She is doing her homework now.(名词作宾语) We often help him.(代词作宾语) He likes to play basketball.(不定式作宾语) We enjoy listening to the music. 我们喜欢听音乐。

(动名词短语作宾语) (四)宾语补足语 在宾语后面补充说明宾语的动作、状态、特征的成分,称为宾语补足语。

名词、形容词、副词、 介词短语以及动词不定式、分词等可用作宾语补足语。

宾语和宾语补足语称为复合宾语。

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如:They make her happy.(形容词) (五)表语 表语说明主语“是什么”或者“怎么样”,由名词、形容词、副词、介词、不定式及相当于名词或 形容词或短语来担任。

它的位置在系动词后面。

如:I am a teacher.(名词) He is always happy.(形容词) They are on the playground now.(介词短语) It gets cold.(形容词) 系动词顺口溜:一是一觉一保持,起来四个,完成四个。

(am,is,are, was, were ,feel ,keep,sound(听起来),seem/look(看 起来),taste(尝起来),smell(闻起来),get, become, turn,go) 如:It sounds interesting.(sound 为系动词,interesting 为表语)(六)定语 定语是用来修饰名词或代词的。

形容词、代词、数词、名词、介词短语、不等式或相当于形容词的 词或短语等。

如:The black bike is mine.(形容词) What’s your name?(代词) They make paper flowers.(名词) (七)状语 修饰动词、形容词、副词。

一般表示行为发生的时间、地点、目的、方式、程度等意义,一般由副 词、介词短语、不定式或相当于副词的词或短语来表示。

状语 一般放在句末,但有的可以放在句首、 句中。

如:He swims in the river every summer. Her mother does some shopping on Sunday.【简单句的五种基本句型】2

A. 主语+不及物动词(主谓) 如:The sun rises.The car stopped. B. 主语+及物动词+宾语(主谓宾) 如:I love my country.He helps me. I like action movies.I buy a book. C. 主语+系动词+表语(主系表) 如:Her brother is a driver.We feel happy. It gets dark.Tom looks ill.D. 主语+及物动词+双宾语(直接宾语、间接宾语)(主谓+直宾+间宾) 如:He gives Tom a present.(双宾语)Mother make a new dress for me.(双宾语) E. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(主+谓+宾+宾补) 如:We make our classroom clean and tidy.(宾补)He always makes us laugh.(宾补)例题写出划线部分的句子成分。

1. Lilyis cleaningthe desknow. 2. Her garden is the best in our town. 3. Liu Ming is thirteen years old. 4. I likethis bookvery much. 5. The girl on the blue bike is Jane’s sister. 6. She didn’t come to my party. 7. Wang Ping doeshis homeworkcarefully. 8. We will go to the Children’s Palace once a week. 9. They are in the classroom. 10. It sounds good. 11. His name is Paul. 12. We always go to school early.课后练习3

(一) 挑出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother doesn't do his homework. A A B C B C D D ② People all over the world speak English. ③You must playthe guitarevery day. A B C D④ How many new words do you learn ? A B C D ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? A (三) 挑出下列句中的定语 ① They use Mr. Mrs. with the family name. A B C D B C D② What is your given name? A B C D③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. A B C D⑤ Theoldman was trying to sleep. A B C D(四) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语 ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. A B C D③ She find it difficult to do the work. A B C D④ They call me Lily sometimes. A B C AB C D D ⑤ I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus.(五) 挑出下列句中的状语4

① There is a big smile on her face. A A A B C B B D C C D D ② Every night ,he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven.(六) 划出句中的直接宾语()和间接宾语() ① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom. ⑤ Does he leave any message for me? (七)从各选项中选出划线部分的句子成分。

1.There is a football on the desk. A.表语 B.主语 C.宾语 D.状语2. My father bought me a car. A.宾语补足语 B.形式主语 C. 间接宾语 D.直接宾语3. We make our classroom clean and tidy.A.宾语补足语B.形式主语C. 真正主语D.直接宾语4.It took Tom an hour to get to the park last Sunday. A.宾语补足语 B.形式主语 C. 真正主语 D.直接宾语5. She find it difficult to do the work. A.宾语补足语 B.形式主语 C. 形式宾语 D.直接宾语6.The hate looks nice on you. A.表语 B.主语 C.宾语 D.状语5

 
 

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