初中英语讲义(教案):初三语法五种基本句型讲解和练习

 时间:2018-06-30 19:59:53 贡献者:ywg946182714

导读:句子成分和五种基本句型一、导入1四只老鼠吹牛。 甲:我每天都拿鼠药当糖吃;乙: 我一天不踩老鼠夹脚发痒;丙: 我每天不过几次大街不踏实;丁:时间不早了,回家抱猫去咯。 2 一群

雅思英语语法讲义
雅思英语语法讲义

句子成分和五种基本句型一、导入1四只老鼠吹牛。

甲:我每天都拿鼠药当糖吃;乙: 我一天不踩老鼠夹脚发痒;丙: 我每天不过几次大街不踏实;丁:时间不早了,回家抱猫去咯。

2 一群蚂蚁爬上了大象的背, 但被摇了下来, 只有一只蚂蚁死死地抱着大象的脖子 不放,下面的蚂蚁大叫:掐死他,掐死他,小样,还他妈反了!二、知识点回顾略(1)专题讲解 ☆ 专题 1:词类1. 十大词类 实词:可以在句子里面充当成分,可以独立出现 1.名词 n. 表示人和事物的名称,作主语、宾语等 2.代词 pron. 代替名词数词等,作主语、宾语等 3.动词 v. 表示动作,做谓语 4.形容词 adj. 表示人或事物的特征,作定语、表语,译作“….的” 5.副词 adv. 表示动作特征或性状特征,修饰动词,形容词或其它副词,做状语,译作“…地” 6.数词 num. 表示数目或顺序,做主语、宾语、表语、定语等 虚词:不能独立出现 7.冠词 art. 用在名词前帮助说明其意义,a / an / the 8.介词 prep. 用在名词,代词等前面,说明它与别的词之间的关系 9.连词 conj. 用来连接词与词或句与句 10.感叹词 interj. 表示说话时的感情或口气1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

☆ 专题 2:句子成分1. 句子成分概述 组成句子的各个部分叫做句子的成分,既:主语、谓语、表语、宾语、定语、状语、宾语补足语。

主语 和谓语是句子的主体部分。

1.主要成分:主语、谓语(必须有) 2.特定成分:宾语、表语、补语(在某种特定的句型里面出现) 3.附加成分:定语、状语(可有可无,可多可少) 2、句子各种成分的含义理解: 1) 、主语:句子的主角,一个句子在说或讨论谁(啥) ,谁(啥)就是主语。

主语一般放在句首。

(在“主+谓 +宾”的句型结构中,主语是动作的执行者,宾语是动作的承受者。

) E.g:Tom is a doctor. My father and my mother are teachers. Today is my birthday. I can see a desk in the room. Watching TV too much is bad for your eyes. Beijing is a good place to visit. 2) 、谓语:动词作谓语,谓语必须是动词(be/情态/实意动词) 。

一般放在主语的后面。

谓语要跟 前面的主语在“人称”和“数”上保持一致,这叫主谓一致。

E.g:I am a teacher. My parents work in a school. You can swim. Lucy doesn’t do homework every day The apple tastes good. He doesn’t like English. I can’t join the club. 3) 、表语:表语对前面的主语起表明、表达、表现、表示的作用。

表明了主语的身份、特征或 状态。

(表语一般为名词或形容词,用于“主+系+表”的结构中。

) E.g:I am Lily. I am a teacher. That sounds interesting.2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

We must keep healthy. My dream is to be a teacher. My teacher looks excited. 4) 、宾语:谓语动作的承受者就是宾语。

(在“主+谓 +宾”的句型结构中,主语是动作的执行者, 宾语是动作的承受者。

) E.g:They sing songs. The boy join the swimming club. The little dog looked at me. I have a book. You like playing soccer. He is reading a newspaper. 5) 、定语:定语起修饰、形容作用,一般由形容词充当。

(还可以由代词、数词充当) E.g:It’s a beautiful car. Beijing is a good place to visit. I have two big eyes. My father often takes a long walk. I have two pens. The red pen is Tom’s. 6) 、状语:状语也起修饰作用,一般由副词或介词短语充当,在句中表示时间、地点、方式、 条件、原因、结果、目的等。

状语用来修饰动词、形容词。

(注:修饰动词的状语通常放在动词后。

He runs quickly. 但有些副词如 often, always, usually 等作状语时则放在 be 动词、助动词和情态动词后,实义动词前。

) E.g:He is very tall. He runs quickly. I often go to school at 7:00. I often have lunch at school. They sing this song in English. The teacher smiled in his office. If it rains tomorrow, we’ll stay at home.(条件状语从句) We had to stay at home because of the rain.(原因状语从句)3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I have to work hard so that I can pass the text.(目的状语从句) 7) 、宾语补足语:用来补充说明宾语的动作或状态。

E.g:He made the boy laugh. I found the dog running through our garden. We call him Little Tiger I find learning English difficult.(difficult 是形容词做宾补) I saw the kite up and down.(up and down 是副词做宾补) Tom made the girl cry.(cry 是动词做宾补)形容词和副词的用法区别: 形容词作定语修饰名词或代词。

副词作状语修饰动词或形容词。

E.g:1、I like the new book.(形容词作定语) Lily is a happy girl.(形容词作定语) 2、He runs quickly.(副词作状语) Lily learns English happily.(副词作状语)及物动词和不及物动词的区分: 及物动词:动词后可以直接涉及、加上一个物(或人)作宾语。

E.g:I play football. Mother bought a new bag. 不及物动词:动词后不可以直接涉及、加上一个物(或人)作宾语。

E.g:He runs quickly. They swim every day.☆ 专题 3:五种基本句型五种基本句型: 英语句子是由主语、谓语(动词)、宾语、表语、定语、状语、宾语补足语等成分组成,按照 这些成分的组合方式的不同,英语句子可分为五种基本句型。

其他各种句型都是由这五种基本句型4 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

转换来的。

五种基本句型 汉语 1、主语 + 谓语(不及物动词) 2、主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 3、主语 + 谓语(系动词) + 表语 4、主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 5、主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 S+V S+V+O S+V+P S + V + INO + DO S + V + O + OC 英语缩写1) 、主语 + 谓语(不及物动词) 1、The teacher smiled. 2、The boy can swim. 3、The sun has risen. 4、I don’t know. 5、The rain has stopped. 2) 、主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 1、I love you. 2、He helps us. 3、She played the piano . 4、The students played football. 5、We study English. 6、The children are watching TV. 3) 、主语 + 谓语(系动词)+ 表语 (英语中有一类动词叫连系动词,它后面用来说明主语“是什么”、“怎么样”的成分,叫做表语。

) Be 动词(am is are was were) 连系动词 感官动词(look , sound , smell , taste , feel , seem ) 1、My dad is [old.] 2、Your pen is [in the desk]. 3、The house is [ large]. 4、They are [Chinese].5 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5、These boxes are [ heavy]. 6、I am [17 years old]. 7、That girl was [me]. 8、You look [sad]. 9、It tastes [good]. (注:系动词 be 有时翻译成“是”,更多的时候不译出来,受中文影响,翻译成英语时容易丢掉。

英语句子中必须有动词。

丢掉连系动词,就是不完整的句子了。

)4) 、主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 分析下面句子: He gave us some money. 间接宾语(人) 直接宾语(物) I’ll teach you English. 间接宾语(由名词或代词充当) 双宾语 直接宾语(由名词或从句充当) 1、I’ll bring you some new books. 2、He returned me the money . 3、They sent their son a car. 4、My uncle bought me a bike (last week). 5、Mother made me a new shirt (last Sunday). 5)、主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词后只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充 成分来补足宾语,说明情况,才能使意思完整。

1. They painted the door green. 他们把门刷成绿色。

(green,补充说明门的性质) 2. They found the house big. 他们发现那房子很大。

(big,补充说明房子的状态) 3.I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus.我看见 Mr. Wang 上了公交车。

(get on the bus,补充说明 Mr. Wang 做了何事)从句:6 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

宾语从句、定语从句、状语从句、 (主语从句、表语从句) (注:哪个句子成分不再是简单的单词、短语,而是个完整的句子,它就会是一个相应的从句。

初中阶段我们主要了解宾语从句、定语从句、状语从句三种从句。

)(2)变式练习一、选出句中谓语的中心词. 1、I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall2、Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C. go D. bus3、There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon4、Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A. Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast5、Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework6、Whom did you give my book to? A. give B. did C. whom D. book二、选出下列句中的宾语 1、My brother hasn't done his homework. A B C D 2、People all over the world speak English. A B C D 3、The old man said he was ill. A B C 4、You will find the museum on the left. A B C 5、You will find it useful after you leave school. A B C 6、They didn't know Tom. A B C7 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

四、 巩固练习一、挑出下列句中的表语 1、The old man was feeling very tired. A B C 2、The leaves have turned yellow. A B C 3、They look beautiful. A B C 4、She was the first one. A B C 二、选出下列句中的定语 1、What is your English name? A B C 2、The man downstairs sleeping. A B C 3、I am waiting for the tall boy. A B C 4、The old man is 90 years old. A B C 三、选出下列句中的宾语补足语 1、He asked her to take the boy out of school. A B C 2、They call me Lily sometimes. A B C 3、I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus. A B C 4、Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground ? A B C 四、选出下列句中的状语. 1、Tom runs fast. A B C 2、There was a big smile on her face. A B C 3、Every night he heard the noise . A B C 4、He began to learn English when he was eleven. A B C 5、She loves the library because she loves books. A B C8 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

五、拓展训练一、划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语. ①Please tell us a story. ②My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term. ④Here is a pen. Give it to Tom. ⑤Did he leave any message for me? 二、写出划线部分的句子成分 1. Lily is cleaning the desk now.2. Her garden is the best in our town.3. Liu Ming is thirteen years old.4. I like this book very much. 5. The girl on the blue bike is Jane’s sister. 6. She didn’t come to my party because she was ill.7. Wang Ping does his homework carefully. 8. We will go to the Children’s Palace once a week.9. They are in the classroom.10. It sounds good. 三、分析句子成分(主、谓、宾、定、状、补、宾补) 1. The pen writes smoothly. 2. His face is red. 3. He bought you a dictionary. 4. He enjoys music. 5. I told him that the bus was late.9 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. He showed me his CD. 7. We saw him out. 8. He is tall and strong.当堂过手训练(快练五分钟,稳准建奇功!)一、判断下列句子的句型并翻译 1.She was short ._______________________________________ 2.I can’t stand the heat._______________________________________ 3.I sent you an E-mail._______________________________________ 4.It cost me three dollars_______________________________________. 5.You can leave the door open._______________________________________ 6.He speaks English ._______________________________________ 7.Teachers will make your English better.___________________________________ 8.That will save you a lot of time_______________________________________. 9.They found the dead boy._______________________________________ 10.They found the boy dead._______________________________________ 11.I found the book easily._______________________________________ 12.Tom took Jim a book._______________________________________ 13.I always find her happy_______________________________________ 14.He said he didn't come._______________________________________ 15.They love each other._______________________________________1 0---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 
 

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