初中英语句子成分及五种基本句型讲解与练习

 时间:2018-06-26 20:01:00 贡献者:lingjysg

导读:句子成分&五种基本句型 一、 考点、热点回顾I.【句子的成分】 在英文中句子成分包括:主语、谓语、宾语(直接宾语、间接宾语) 、表语、定语和 状语、宾语补足语等。 (一)主语:主

育英科技 王衡老师 中考英语四轮复习法答案ppt  句子成分 主语:you b
育英科技 王衡老师 中考英语四轮复习法答案ppt 句子成分 主语:you b

句子成分&五种基本句型 一、 考点、热点回顾I.【句子的成分】 在英文中句子成分包括:主语、谓语、宾语(直接宾语、间接宾语) 、表语、定语和 状语、宾语补足语等。

(一)主语:主语是谓语讲述的对象,表示所说的“是什么”或“是谁” 。

一般由名词、 代词、不定式或相当于名词的词或短语来充当。

它在句首。

如: (1)Lucy is a beautiful nurse. (名词作主语) (2)He reads newspapers every day. (代词作主语) (3)Smoking is harmful to the health. (动名词作主语) (4)To swim in Kunming Lake is a great pleasure.(不定式作主语) (5)What we should do is not yet decided. (主语从句作主语) (二)谓语 说明主语“做什么” “是什么”或“怎么样” 。

谓语(谓语部分里主要的词)必须是动词。

谓语和主语在人称和数两方面必须一致。

它在主语后面。

如:His parents are teachers. (系动词作谓语) We study hard. (行为动词作谓语) We don’t finish reading the book. (助动词和行为动词一起作谓语) He can speak English. (情态动词和行为动词一起作谓语) (三)宾语 宾语是动作、行为的对象,由名词、代词、不定式或相当于名词的词、短语来担任, 它和及物动词一起说明主语做什么。

一般放在谓语之后。

She is doing her homework now.(名词作宾语) She says(that)she is ill.(宾语从句作动词宾语) We often help him.(代词作宾语) He likes to play basketball.(不定式作宾语) We enjoy listening to the music. 我们喜欢听音乐。

(动名词短语作宾语) 说明 1:宾语是及物动词涉及到的人或物,宾语一般放在及物动词之后。

介词后面的 名词或代词或动名词,称为介词宾语。

名词、代词、数词常在句中做动词宾语或介词宾语。

另外,动词不定式可作动词宾语;动名词和宾语从句也可用作动词宾语。

说明 2:及物动词作谓语时,后面要跟宾语。

宾语分直接宾语和间接宾语。

直接宾语 是及物动词的直接对象,直接宾语指物,间接宾语通常是及物动词的动作所及的人,间接 宾语指人。

间接宾语一般放在直接宾语之前。

不是所有的及物动词都可以用双宾语。

有的动词可以跟。

如:give, show(给„„看) , bring, pass, buy 等。

如: (1)Our teacher tells us a story. (2)The sun gives us light. 间接宾语如果放在直接宾语之后,在表示“人”的间接宾语之前会出现介词“to”或 “for” 。

★间接宾语前加“to”的有: give, show, send, bring, read, pass, lend, leave, hand, tell, return, write, throw, promise(答 应), refuse(拒绝)等。

★间接宾语加“for”的有:1

make, buy, do, get, play, order(命令), sing, pay 等 (1)I give him a book. 改成: (2)He passes me the book.(他将书递给我。

)改成: (3)He writes me a letter. 改成: (4)He will buy me some books. 改成: (5)She is making me a cake. 改成: (四)宾语补足语 在宾语后面补充说明宾语的动作、状态、特征的成分,称为宾语补足语。

名词、形容 词、副词、介词短语以及动词不定式、分词等可用作宾语补足语。

宾语和宾语补足语称为 复合宾语。

如:They make her happy.(形容词) I see her dance.(省 to 的不定式) We’ll help you to make the Olympics a success.(名词) Please let him in.(副词) We heard her singing a song.(分词短语) (五)表语 表语说明主语“是什么”或者“怎么样” ,由名词、形容词、副词、介词、不定式及 名词或形容词短语来担任。

它的位置在系动词后面。

如:I am a teacher.(名词) He is always happy.(形容词) They are on the playground now.(介词短语) It gets cold.(形容词) Be 动词(am,is,are, was, were) 系动词 表保持(keep, stay, remain) 表改变(get, become, turn) 感官动词(feel,sound(听起来) ,seem/look(看起来) ,taste(尝起来) , smell(闻起来) ) 如:It sounds interesting.(sound 为系动词,interesting 为表语) We should all remain careful. (Remain 为系动词, careful 为表语) (六)定语 定语是用来修饰名词或代词的。

形容词、代词、数词、名词、介词短语、不等式或相 当于形容词的词或短语等。

单个词作定语时,通常放在它所修饰的名词之前。

如:The black bike is mine.(形容词) What’s your name?(代词) They make paper flowers.(名词) 说明 1:当定语修饰不定代词:nothing, anything, everything, something 等时,定语在不 定代词后面。

如:I tell him something interesting. (形容词 interesting 作不定 代词 something 的后置定语) He has something to do. (to do 为不定式作后置定语) 说明 2:短语或从句作定语时,也放在被修饰的名词之后。

如:The boys in the room are in Class Four. (in the room 是介词短语作 the boys2

的后置定语。

) (七)状语 修饰动词、形容词、副词。

一般表示行为发生的时间、地点、目的、方式、程度等意 义,一般由副词、介词短语、不定式或相当于副词的词或短语来表示。

状语一般放在句末, 但有的可以放在句首、句中。

如:He did it carefully.(副词) We often help him.(副词) Her mother goes out to do some shopping on Sunday.(介词短语) When I grow up, I am going to be a teacher.(从句作时间状语) He sits there.(副词地点状语)II. 【五种基本句型】A. 主语+不及物动词(主谓) 如:The sun rises. 太阳升起来。

The car stopped. 小汽车停下来了。

rise 和 stop 都是不及物动词,因此后边不必加宾语。

B. 主语+及物动词+宾语(主谓宾) 如:I love my country. He helps me. I like action movies. I buy a book. C. 主语+系动词+表语(主系表) 如:Her brother is a driver. We feel happy.(feel 为系动词,表示感到„„) It gets dark.天黑了。

(get 为系动词,表示变得) Tom looks ill. Tom 看上去病了。

(look 为系动词,表示看上去,看起来) D. 主语+及物动词+双宾语(直接宾语、间接宾语)(主谓+直宾+间宾) 如:He gives Tom a present.(双宾语) 他给汤姆一件礼物。

Mother make a new dress for me.(双宾语) 妈妈为我做了一件衣服。

E. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(主+谓+宾+宾补) 如:They call her Mary.(宾补) 他们叫她 Mary。

We make our classroom clean and tidy.(宾补) 我们使我们的教室干净而整齐。

He always makes us laugh.(宾补) 他总使我们笑。

二、 典型例题写出划线部分的句子成分。

1. Lily is cleaning the desk now. 2. Her garden is the best in our town. 3. Liu Ming is thirteen years old. 4. I like this book very much.3

5. The girl on the blue bike is Jane’s sister. 6. She didn’t come to my party because she was ill. 7. Wang Ping does his homework carefully. 8. We will go to the Children’s Palace once a week. 9. They are in the classroom. 10. It sounds good. 11. His name is Paul. 12. We always go to school early.三、 课后练习(一) 挑出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother doesn't do his homework. A B C D ② People all over the world speak English. A B C D ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. A B C D ④ How many new words do you learn ? A B C D ⑤ Some students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? A B C D (二) 挑出下列句中的表语 ① The old man is feeling very tired. A B C D ② Why is he worried about Jim? A B C D ③ The leaves have turned yellow. A B C D ④ Soon They all become interested in the subject. A B C D ⑤ She is the first to learn about it. A B C D4

(三) 挑出下列句中的定语 ① They use Mr. Mrs. with the family name. A B C D ② What is your given name? A B C D ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. A B C D ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. A B C D ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. A B C D (四) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语 ① She likes the children to read newspapers & books in the reading-room. A B C D ② He asks her to take the boy out of school. A B C D ③ She find it difficult to do the work. A B C D ④ They call me Lily sometimes. A B C D ⑤ I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus. AB C D(五) 挑出下列句中的状语 ① There is a big smile on her face. A B C D ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. A B C D ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. A B C D ④ The man on the motorbike is travelling to fast. A B C D ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. A B C D (六) 划出句中的直接宾语( ① Please tell us a story. )和间接宾语( )5

② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom. ⑤ Does he leave any message for me? (七)写出下列句子的结构 1. They work hard. ______________ 2. The flowers are dead. ____________ 3. Plants need water. ______________ 4. He gave me some seeds. ___________ 5. We should keep the plant in the shade. ____________ 6. Many animals live in trees. _________ 7. The cake tastes delicious. __________ 8. Class begins at eight every day. _____6

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