Unit 1 – Section A Language Focus – Words in Use 1. Given the chance to show his ability, he regained (confidence) and began to succeed in school. 2. It is so difficult to (explore) the bottom of the ocean because some parts are very deep. 3. It was about 30 seconds before Alex (emerged) from the water; we were quite scared. 4. We often (assume) that when other people do the same things as we do, they do them for the same reasons; but this assumption is not always reasonable. 5. There is widespread concern that the rising unemployment may (pose) a threat to social stability. 6. After a(n) (comprehensive) physical exam, my doctor said I was in good condition except that my blood pressure was a little high. 7. It is well known that China is a country with rich natural (resources) and a very big population. 8. Some people believe that the earth can (yield) enough food to support at least twice its present population. 9. Sam (inherited) the gift of imagination from his family, but he lacked the driving power to take action. 10. A bee that has found honey is able to (transmit) to other bees the information they need in order to collect the honey. Word Building 1. cover 1. uncover 2. easy 2. uneasy 3. load 3. unload 4. apply 4. applicant 5. resist 5. resistant 6. account 6. accountant 7. assistant 7. assist 8. simple 8. simplify 9. note 9. notify 10. quality 10. qualify 11. class 11. classify 1. Despite being (classified) as a meat-eater, the panda has a diet that is overwhelmingly vegetarian. 2. They have developed computerized systems which will greatly (assist) all library users so that they will not need the help of others. 3. Changes have been made to the construction requirements in this city in order to make the buildings and highways more (resistant) to earthquakes. 4. After a two-month inquiry, the police have (uncovered) the three men's intention to rob a bank and have arrested them. 5. Consumers say they are (uneasy) about using their credit cards over the Internet because they are afraid of Interent fraud. 6. A college degree and some working experience should (qualify) you for the job advertised in the newspaper. 7. The British ship arrived at the port this morning and is (unloading) its contents in the harbor now. 8. As a human resources manager, I see many job (applicants) who are technically skilled, but have bad attitudes. 9. The teacher (simplified) his instructions so that the small children could understand him better. 10. My major was literature. However, now I'm working in a firm as a(n) (accountant) , dealing with numbers every day. 11. The committee's decision will be (notified) to all employees next week. Banked Cloze
University students come from different parts of the country with various purposes. However, a closer look at their reasons for studying at the university will enable us to (1) (classify) them roughly into three groups: those who have a(n) (2) (passion) for learning, those who wish to (3) (attain) a bright future, and those who learn with no definite purpose. Firstly, there are many students who learn simply because they (4) (pursue) their goal of learning. Some read a wealth of British and American novels because they are keenly interested in literature. Others sit in front of the computer screen, working on a new program, (5) (virtually) day and night, because they find some computer programs (6) (fascinating), and they dream of becoming a "Bill Gates" one day. Secondly, there are students who work hard mainly for a better and more (7) (prosperous) future. It seems that the majority of students fall into this group. After admission to the university, they read books after books to (8) (acquire) knowledge from all of the resources which are (9) (available) to them, and finally, to succeed in the future job market. Thirdly, there are still some students who learn without a clear goal. They take courses, finish homework, enjoy life on campus, but don't want to (10) (sample) anything new or challenging. They have no idea what they will be doing after college. And they may end up with nothing in their lives. Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. My family (got by) on my father's unemployment benefit after he lost his job. 2. Many subway riders read books or listen to music in order to (make the most of) their time on the way to work. 3. In order to make sure he would be able to attend the meeting, I called him up two weeks (in advance) . 4. Experts say our company is amazing in that sales have been increasing steadily (over time) . 5. In order to (reap the benefits of) the physical exercise, you have to exercise regularly, and for at least half an hour each time. 6. They all tried to talk (all at once) , but I couldn't hear anything they said. 7. Yellow flowers in the field always (1) (remind) me (2) (of) my childhood in the countryside. 8. We have been practicing for so long and so hard that our team should (stand a chance of) winning the game. 9. Research on genes will (open the door to) exciting new medical treatments. 10. Every one of you has made a contribution and I (take pleasure in) acknowledging what each of you has done to make this academic convention such a success. Translation 英译汉 Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher who is credited with laying the fundamentals (基 础) of modern Western philosophy. He is a mysterious figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his most famous student Plato. Socrates has become well known for his contribution to the field of ethics. His method of teaching, known as the Socratic Method, by asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to explain ideas remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions. He also made important and lasting contributions to the field of epistemology (认识论) and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains a strong foundation for Western philosophy that followed. Socrates was the most colorful figure in the history of ancient philosophy. His fame was widespread in his own time, and his name soon became a household word although he constructed no philosophical system, established no school, and founded no sect (宗派). 苏格拉底是古希腊哲学家，被誉为现代西方哲学的奠基人。
他是一个谜一般的人物，人 们主要通过后期的一些古典作家的叙述， 尤其是他最著名的学生柏拉图的作品去了解他。
他的教学法亦称为苏格拉底法， 即通过提问和回答来激 发批判性思维以及阐述观点。
虽然他未曾 建立什么哲学体系，未曾设立什么学派，也未曾创立什么宗派，但他的名字很快就变得家喻 户晓了。
汉译英 孔子是中国历史上著名的思想家、教育家，是儒家学派（Confucianism）的创始人， 被尊称为古代的"圣人"（sage） 。
他的言论和生平活动记录在《论语》 （The Analects）一书 中。
在 21 世纪的今天，孔子的学说不仅受到中 国人的重视，而且也越来越受到整个国际社会的重视。
Confucius was a great thinker and educator in Chinese history. He was the founder of Confucianism and was respectfully referred to as an ancient "sage". His words and life story were recorded in The Analects. An enduring classic of ancient Chinese culture, The Analects has had a great influence on the thinkers, writers, and statesmen that came after Confucius. Without studying this book, one could hardly truly understand the thousands-of-years' traditional Chinese culture. Much of Confucius' thought, especially his thought on education, has had a profound influence on Chinese society. In the 21st century, Confucian thought not only retains the attention of the Chinese, but it also wins an increasing attention from the international community.Unit 1 – Section B Language Focus – Words in Use 1. By decreasing the tax rate, the government can (stimulate) or encourage consumer spending, business transactions (交易) and investments. 2. Our bodies have greater (potential) than most of us realize, and we can benefit by remembering this. 3. One important feature of team sports is that they can (cultivate) people's team spirit and sense of collective honor. 4. Human behavior is mostly a product of learning, while animal behavior depends mainly upon (instinct) . 5. She has been saving money in the past two years, so she is (confident) that in the coming summer she will be able to afford a journey abroad. 6. The doctor (assured) him that his condition was not serious and he would recover soon after a minor operation. 7. Generally, children display great (curiosity) about every new thing they see, and they want to find out more about it. 8. He was proud of being chosen to (participate) in the game, and he promised that he would try as hard as possible. 9. Though it has met with considerable enthusiasm, there has been resistance from some parents to this new (approach) to teaching and learning. 10. The room only had a(n) (capacity) for 100 people. However, over 200 enthusiastic students came to listen to the lecture. Language Focus – Expressions in Use1. Endless wars have turned this once wealthy country (into) one of the poorest nations in the world. 2. If you feel (like) staying at home, we could watch one of your favorite movie DVDs.
3. She was a confident and outgoing girl, but the presence of the president reduced her (to) silence. 4. I'd like to sign (up) for volunteer (志愿的) work with an environmental organization. I hear it is a great way to connect with the community. 5. I know he is annoying and unfriendly, but you shouldn't let him get (to) you. 6. The government is launching a new program which is aimed at opening (up) new employment opportunities. 7. Sharon was nowhere to be found. Maybe she had gone (off) to the beach with Tony. 8. They develop the specialized skills, knowledge, and positive attitudes needed to participate (in) sports and physical activities. Sentence structure 1. (正是山姆认为) that the greatest achievement of last century was the landing of mankind on the moon. Reference: It is Sam that/who thinks 2. (正是在本科学习期间) I found out what my passion was. Reference: It was during my undergraduate studies that 3. (正是孩子的好奇心和创造力) causes many educators to believe that teaching should stimulate children's interest in learning. Reference: It is the curiosity and creativity of children that
Unit 2 – Section A Language Focus – Words in Use 1. He has a special feeling for the brilliant birds, and each spring he eagerly (awaits) their return. 2. Thanks to the (efficiency) of air transport, everyone is free to go anywhere at any time. 3. John believes that the (donation) of food to the hungry is more helpful than giving money. 4. Mary was a careful speaker; every word seemed to have been (polished) before it was allowed to escape through her lips. 5. When she heard it was snowing in the city they were going to, she (stuffed) two more sweaters into her bag. 6. During our stay in Europe we visited many places of (historical) interest, including several castles. 7. The wedding ceremony of my sister was a very (emotional) experience for our family. 8. He was (embarrassed) when he discovered that he didn't have enough money to pay for the red wine he had ordered. 9. The local government is pressed to find new places to (dump) waste. 10. The new system designed to (curb) harmful emissions (排放物) from factories will be put into use soon. Word Building 1. employ 1. employer 2. computer 2. compute 3. interpreter 3. interpret 4. atom 4. atomic 5. artist 5. artistic 6. economy 6. economic 7. history 7. historic 8. electronic 8. electron 9. envy 9. envious 10. continue 10. continuous 11. famous 11. fame 12. various 12. vary 1. Lack of eye contact might be (interpreted) as lack of attention in America, while eye contact might be considered rude in Japan. 2. When applying for a job, make sure you emphasize the skills and knowledge you have that the (employer) will find important to the job. 3. Many of our students are beginners who have never done painting before and are looking to develop their (artistic) interests. 4. It is surprising that you don't know about such a(n) (historic) event. It marked the beginning of a new period for our nation. 5. They hoped to create a computer which could (compute) at 10 times the speed of computers on the market. 6. Education is a(n) (continuous) learning process that never ends. A teacher has the responsibility of making students think for themselves by giving effective guidance. 7. On the one hand, we should make efforts to improve the economy; on the other hand, we must keep a balance between (economic) development and environmental protection. 8. Some successful people managed to gain (fame) and fortune even though they dropped out of school. 9. A(n) (electron) is a very small piece of matter with a negative electrical charge, found in all atoms. 10. The (atomic) bombs, also known as nuclear bombs, would cause disasters if they were used in wars.
11. I never felt anxious or (envious) when somebody else got a higher position or made a lot of money. 12. The effects of this medicine will (vary) according to a person's health, weight, and sex. Banked Cloze Parents and teenagers have different or even opposite things to worry about. For example, while a mother might have a hard time understanding why her teenagers' room is always a(n) (1) (embarrassment) of dirty stuff, the teenagers are more worried about their next exams and may think it is (2) (ridiculous) for their mother to insist on keeping a clean room. It is therefore important for you to (3) (appreciate) the differences and learn to communicate with your teenagers properly. (4) (Otherwise), your teenagers may say nothing and shut you out of their personal lives. Their refusal to talk with you may even create (5) (emotional) stress in your life.Learning effective ways to communicate can (6) (reverse) the situation of a difficult relationship, (7) (reduce) the stress of your life, and lead to a friendly relationship with your teenagers. First, you should learn to discuss serious problems in daily conversations. So, important topics, such as driving a vehicle and building a(n) (8) (romantic) relationship, could be dealt with through daily conversations.Second, learn to be an active listener. Many parents are so (9) (overwhelmed) with their work that they could hardly take some time for their (10) (beloved) children. Spend your time listening carefully to what your children like to talk about, and make sure your children feel they are being taken seriously. This will increase the chances of good communication. Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. After 10 years of full-time training, she has finally (made it) as a professional dancer. 2. (After all) , what is the point in taking part in the competitive event if the result is only to prove how incompetent you are? 3. Redecorating the house is a challenging task. It's necessary to (strip off) the wallpaper first. 4. I never really had any problems with change. On the contrary, I welcome change (with open arms) . 5. A lot of what we (throw away) is made from raw materials which are not renewable. 6. Megan and John realized that their house was too messy for a new baby, so they decided to (straighten up) their house before the baby was born. 7. Jennifer couldn't (keep back) her tears when she saw the sick children at a new blood cancer center in Virginia. 8. We want to give all children a world (free of/from) violence. Translation 英译汉 Christmas is a widely observed cultural holiday, celebrated on December 25 by millions of people around the world. It commemorates (纪念) the birth of Jesus Christ. The festival dated from as early as 336 AD. Gradually it evolved into a religious as well as secular (非宗教的) celebration, celebrated by an increasing number of non-Christians. Today Christmas is observed as an important festival and public holiday around the world. Christmas customs differ in different countries. Popular modern customs of the holiday include an exchange of Christmas cards and gifts, Christmas singing, church attendance, the display of various Christmas decorations and trees, family gatherings, and a special meal preparation. To small children, the festival is full of fantasy and surprise. Legend (传说) has it that Santa Claus will enter each house through the chimney and bring gifts to well-behaved children on Christmas Eve. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival heighten economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, the holiday has also become a significant event and a key sales period for businesses. 圣诞节是一个被广泛庆祝的文化节日，全世界有许许多多的人在 1 2 月 2 5 日庆祝这一 节日。
该节日最早可追溯到公元 3 3 6 年。
由于圣诞节送礼物以及许多其他方面推动了基督徒和非基督徒的经济活动， 圣诞 节也因此成为商家的一个重大活动和主要销售季。
汉译英 每 年 农 历（Chinese lunar calendar）八 月 十 五 是我 国 的 传 统 节 日 —— 中 秋 节（the Mid-Autumn Festival） 。
自 2008 年起，中秋节成为中国的法定节假日。
According to the Chinese lunar calendar, August 15 of every year is a traditional Chinese festival — the Mid-Autumn Festival. This day is the middle of autumn, so it is called Mid-Autumn. One of the important Mid-Autumn Festival activities is to enjoy the moon. On that night, people gather together to celebrate the Mid-Autumn Festival, looking up at the bright moon and eating moon cakes. The festival is also a time for family reunion. People living far away from home will express their feelings of missing their hometowns and families at this festival. There are many customs to celebrate the festival, all expressing people's love and hope for a happy life. Since 2008, the Mid-Autumn Festival has become an official national holiday in China.Unit 2 – Section B Language Focus – Words in Use 1. As a tall girl, I feel very uncomfortable and (awkward) in high heels. 2. Although we were supposed to finish the project this month, it looks like the work will (stretch) well into the next month. 3. It is believed that the driver had lost control over his car while he was (overtaking) and running into another car. 4. After the quarrel, things became very (delicate) between me and my boss, and as a result I had to give up my job. 5. The scientist did not (anticipate) that his research result would be put to an entirely different use. 6. With five days before the opening of the College Student Arts Festival, there is a(n) (immense) amount of work to be done. 7. Hans is a warm-hearted person. When needed, he would show no (reluctance) to help others. 8. Some older people tend to be quite conservative and a bit (suspicious) of any supposed advances. 9. During the period of adjustment (适应), the international student tends to (complain) about everything in the new environment. 10. Her anger (melted) away when she read his letter of apology. Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. I like this market most, because all the fruits and vegetables, shaded by umbrellas, are laid (out) so nicely. 2. He said, politely and kindly, "If you don't care (for) the film, perhaps you'd like to read the book." 3. He seldom spoke, and he was never impatient (with) her; he was always a kind and friendly father. 4. The sharp surge (in/of) house price makes it difficult for young people to buy houses, especially in big cities. 5. Though very busy with his work, he does mountain climbing once (in) a while with his friends.
6. This area witnessed a leap in economic growth in the past decade, but now the growth is slowing (down) . 7. Since you don't know much about this city, let me accompany you (to) your hotel in case you lose your way. 8. Leaving behind their families when getting (aboard) the plane departing for America is their most challenging experience. Sentence structure 1. All of Justin's pain disappeared. (他的腿也不痛了). Reference: So did the ache in his legs 2. His father doesn't have great hope for him now. (他的母亲也一样). Reference: Nor does his mother 3. CNN then reported the story and (其他电视新闻节目和各大报纸也都报道了). Reference: so did other television news programs and major newspapers
Unit 3 – Section A Language Focus – Words in Use 1. To make our companies (competitive) in the market, we have to be more creative and productive. 2. People are beginning to realize that to (transform) nature at will is the biggest mistake that man has ever made. 3. It is difficult to conclude what a(n) (typical) student does in his spare time because every student has different interests. 4. A month ago I wrote to the store complaining about its bad service, but I haven't gotten a(n) (response) yet. 5. Some of your suggestions have been (adopted) , but others have been turned down as they are not workable. 6. All of a sudden, he lost his interest in engineering, and (focused) his attention on learning a foreign language. 7. If a company decreases health benefits for its employees, they should increase salaries to (compensate) the workers. 8. I failed to pass the exam although I had worked very hard. I should (analyze) the causes of my failure. 9. When you do yoga, try to (regulate) your breathing. Don't breathe too fast and make sure you breathe only through your nose. 10. It was difficult to (estimate) how many people had been wounded in the earthquake. Word Building 1. scene 1. scenery 2. machine 2. machinery 3. detective 3. detect 4. compare 4. comparative 5. explode 5. explosive 6. mass 6. massive 7. represent 7. representative 8. modern 8. modernize 9. character 9. characterize 10. special 10. specialize 11. computer 11. computerize 12. summary 12. summarize 1. New Zealand is famous for its clean beaches, friendly people and magnificent (scenery) . 2. The company decided after a board meeting that the old (machinery) in the factories be done away with. 3. The key to an effective presentation is to state your points clearly and (summarize) each of your points at the end of your presentation. 4. My favorite store is the one that (specializes) in hand-made chocolates and lets you sample them. 5. It is sad that when he is alone, he always drinks a(n) (massive) amount of alcohol to get himself drunk. 6. To our delight, this new smoke alarm system can effectively (detect) very weak signals. 7. We have sent our union (representative/representatives) to look into the case and see who is responsible. 8. James is famous for skillfully using white and black colors; however, bright colors (characterize) his early paintings. 9. I made a(n) (comparative) analysis between the two theories to show their similarities and differences. 10. The project is an important step toward a national health service, and the authorities (当局) are trying hard to (modernize) the exercise facilities. 11. In recent years, the small city has taken on a new look because of its (explosive)
development. 12. A(n) (computerized) library system is one that stores all the records of the library on computer. Banked ClozeThere have been increased demands for higher education to provide students with better courses and more opportunities. To deal with this (1) (complex) issue, colleges and universities are turning to the Internet for quick (2) (access) to its rich educational resources. Now the Internet has been accepted as the (3) (preferred) technology to many other methods in colleges and universities. Many teachers now routinely (4) (post) their teaching materials online. A growing number of schools offer at least some (5) (undergraduate) courses over the Internet. There are two different models of making use of the Internet for higher education. The first model (6) (seeks) to improve existing courses by using the Internet. This model provides high-speed Internet (7) (connectivity) to all students, faculty, and staff. While this model uses the Internet, it doesn't (8) (require) many changes, and it keeps most existing institutional structures unchanged. A different, more revolutionary model regards the Internet as (9) (indispensable) to an important change in higher education, for it is believed that the Internet can (10) (transform) teacher-centered instruction into student-centered learning. This, as a result, will bring about basic change to our university education. Language Focus – Expressions in Use 1. I (fired off) a letter of complaint to the manager of the store as soon as I found they had sold me a pair of mismatched shoes. 2. People browse the Internet, read newspapers and watch TV to (keep up with) what is happening in the world. 3. The university has (set up) another large laboratory for students to design more complicated robots. 4. I find it very difficult to (account for) the fact that two of our best students failed the exam. 5. In the current economy, with unemployment high and competition for jobs fierce, your resume needs to (stand out) for all the right reasons. 6. She is getting popular since she appeared in a TV interview last month. Her new movie will no doubt (add to) her growing fame. 7. The developed countries should (take the lead) in reducing greenhouse gas emissions (排放) and provide support for the developing nations to follow. 8. If your spoken English is not very good, then you may be (at a disadvantage) when you are looking for a job. 9. Their success was due (in large part) to their well-conceived (周密策划的) plan. 10. He has been so occupied with his work these days that he barely has time to (visit with) his friends. Translation 英译汉 The London Underground is a rapid transit (交通运输系统) system in the United Kingdom, serving a large part of Greater London. The underground system is also known as the Tube, due to the characteristic shape of the subway tunnels. It all started in the mid-1800s. The Tube was the world's first underground train system, with the first section opening in 1863. Since then it has grown to an underground masterpiece (杰作) of 12 lines, 275 stations, and over 250 miles of rail track, 45% of which is underground. It is the fourth largest metro system in the world in terms of route miles. It also has one of the largest numbers of stations. As an affordable and easy way to get around London, the Tube remains the first choice for millions of commuters each day, as well as tourists visiting the city on holidays. The Tube has been an international icon for London. The London Underground celebrated its 150 years of operation in 2013, with various events marking the milestone (里程碑).