时间:2018-06-02 13:23:38 贡献者:qq5807226

导读:研究生英语阅读综合教程 上 Reading More 翻译Unit 1 Why Do We Work?Lawyers practice a difficult and demanding profession. They expect to be well compensated. In thinking about what that means, it can help to consider the basic question,

研究生英语综合教程上 readingmore翻译
研究生英语综合教程上 readingmore翻译

研究生英语阅读综合教程 上 Reading More 翻译Unit 1 Why Do We Work?Lawyers practice a difficult and demanding profession. They expect to be well compensated. In thinking about what that means, it can help to consider the basic question, “Why do we work?” Samuel Johnson supplied an obvious answer when he famously observed, “No man but a blockhead ever wrote,except for money.” But I am not being paid to write this article, and instead of labeling myself a blockhead, let me refer to the insight of eminent psychologist Theodor Reik: "Work and love—these are the basics. Without them there is neurosis." 律师们从事的是一项要求很高又费神的职业。


在思考这句话 的含义 时,考虑一下这个基本问题会对我们有所帮助:“我们为什么工作? ”塞缪尔· 约翰逊在他的 著名论断“除了笨蛋没有人会写作,除非为了钱。

”中显然给出了 答案。

但我写这篇文章时 并没有人付我钱。

,而且我非但不会把自己当作傻瓜,还想引用一下著名的心理学家西奥 多· 赖克的深刻见解:“工作和爱——这是基本需求。


” Why do we work? For money, but also for sanity. We expect and need to be compensated in nonmonetary ways. Noneconomic compensation matters to top-flight lawyers—otherwise, they would have long ago fled to investment banks. Law firms that want to recruit and retain the best (and the sanest) must compensate not only in dollars but also in psychic gratification. Accordingly, managers of elite firms need to think consciously about what lawyers are looking for beyond money. Here are some key noneconomic elements of compensation. 我们为什么工作?为钱, 也为有明智的头脑。

我们期待并且需要以非货币的方式获得回 报, 非经济报酬对一流的律师们来说很重要——要不然,他们早就跑到投资银行去了。

律师事务 所如果要招募并挽留住最好的(也是最有头脑的)律师的话,就必须不仅仅 以美元的方式, 而且还要以精神满足的方式支付报酬。

相应地,一流律师事务所的经理们需要认真地考虑, 除了钱律师们还在寻找什么。


Professional identity 职业认同感 Many lawyers define themselves with reference to the privileges and attributes of their profession. When firms recognize professional prerogatives, they provide an important form of compensation. 许多律师从行业的特权和性质来诠释他们自己。

当律师事务所认可了他们的职业特权时, 便 提供了一种重要的补偿方式。

For example, Lawyers pride themselves on belonging to a learned profession. By providing opportunities for continued intellectual growth, law firms can simultaneously provide a form of compensation and reinforce a core value of the profession. This isn’t hard to do. Organize and host seminars with leading scholars, support scholarship in-house with resources such as research assistance and create venues for lawyers to engage in serious discourse. 例如,律师们以属于一个学识渊博的行业而引以为豪。

通过提供进一步增长知识的机会,律 师事务所能够在提供一种回报方式的同时加强行业的核心价值。

做到这一点并不难, 组织并 主办由最好的学者主讲的研讨班, 利用诸如研究援助等资源提供内部奖学金, 并为律师们提 供进行严肃讨论的场所。

Another core professional value is autonomy. A law firm pays psychic compensation when it understands and accepts that in matters of professional judgment, lawyers are their own masters. In this regard, firms should encourage a diversity of approaches, letting each lawyer develop his or her own style of practice. Empowering lawyers in this way inculcates a heightened sense of personal responsibility, which in turn reinforces the drive for individual excellence. 另一个核心行业价值是自主性。

当一个律师事务所理解并接受了在职业性判断这样的 事情 上律师们是自己的主人,它就是在支付精神报酬。

从这个意义上说,律师事务所 应该鼓励 以多样化的方式让每位律师形成自己的行事风格。

以此种方式授权律师既强调了一种高度的 个人责任感,又反过来加强了个人追求卓越的驱动力。

Equally important to professional autonomy is that firms need to take care not to impinge on a lawyer's exercise of considered professional judgment, even when that means refusing a client. Lawyers are not the servants of their clients. In appropriate circumstances, telling the client “No” is an act of the highest professionalism. A lawyer is well-paid with the confidence that the firm will stand behind him or her in such circumstances. 与职业自主性同样重要的是,律师事务所需要注意不要干涉律师运用他们经过深思熟 虑的 职业判断,即便那意味着拒绝客户。

律师不是客户的仆从, 在适当的条件下, 对 客户说“不” 是一种体现最高职业素养的行为。

在这种情况下, 当一名律师深信律师事务所会在背后支持 他,他便获得了丰厚的报酬。

Lastly, professional status encompasses adherence to ethical standards. Most lawyers find self-worth in setting an example—both within the profession and within the larger society—as ethical actors. When management affirms the special respect due to lawyers who act with the utmost integrity and civility in all of their professional dealings, it provides yet another form of compensation. 最后,职业地位包含对职业标准的遵守。

很多律师通过在行业内外把自己塑造成一个 具有 良好职业道德的典范来找到自我价值。

对那些在所有职业行为中都表现出极度正 直和谦逊 有礼的律师们来说,当管理阶层对他们理应受到的特别尊重表示肯定时,便 又获得了另一 种形式的精神报酬。

Personal pride 个人自豪感

Few of us make it through the rigors of a legal education without having a deeply internalized sense of excellence for its own sake. Lawyers compensate themselves with the powerful self-affirmation of a job well done. 很少有人会这样:在经历严格的法律教育之后,没有体验到纯粹的、深深融合进自己性格的 追求卓越的精神。


As a matter of both compensation and reputation, an elite firm cannot afford to impede the drive to excellence, even when it’s not cost effective in the short term, This means, for example, that firm management should applaud the writing and rewriting of a brief to the highest standard even when a cynical perspective would suggest that the extra effort will have no practical effect. 从报酬和声望的角度来说,一家顶级律师事务所承担不起阻挠追求卓越的动力所带来 的后 果,即使从短期来看这并不合算。

这意味着,举个例子来说,律师事务所管理层 应该称赞 按照最高标准一再重写诉讼要点这样的行为, 即使有处世悲观的人认为花额外的力气并不会 带来实际的效益。

Always celebrate superlative work product even when it seems unlikely to make a difference in the outcome. Instead of kowtowing to client demands for super work at a cut-rate price, deliver excellence and expect to be paid for it. 要始终祝贺出色的工作成果.即便这些成果对事情的结局似乎不大可能产生影响。

不 要对客 户们低价位高质量的工作要求百依百顺,要奉献优质的工作并期待相应的回报。

Idealism 理想主义 Think back to law school. Who remembers talking into the night about how to obtain the highest profits per equity partner? 回想一下在法学院的情景吧。

谁记得就如何使每位参股合伙人获得最高利润的话题谈论至深 夜? More memorable discussions covered things such as the advancement of civil rights, the provision of legal services to the poor, the development of a more equitable system of taxation, the promulgation of international norms guaranteeing basic human dignity. Lawyers thirst for justice, and slaking that thirst is an important element of compensation. Almost by definition, an elite law firm supports pro bono and public service efforts, thereby accomplishing the intertwined goal of compensating its professionals and discharging its institutional obligations to society. 更值得回忆的讨论包括诸如公民权的提高,为穷人提供法律服务,创造一种更公平的 税收 制度,保证基本人格尊严的国际法规的颁布等话题。

律师们渴望正义,满足这种渴望是一种 重要的补偿元索。

一家顶级的律师事务所支持公益服务几乎是理所当然的, 它由此完成既回 报专业人士又履行作为公共机构对于社会的责任这两个密不可分的目标。

Recognition 表彰

Psychic compensation includes recognition, both formal and informal. Rendering such compensation depends on management’s making just a little extra effort to acknowledge achievement. Celebrate important accomplishments and mark important milestones. On occasion, elaborate dinners or parties are called for, but often casual events will serve the purpose. Institute formal award programs. Stage ceremonies of public recognition. Never neglect to mark even relatively minor accomplishments with a congratulatory e-mail or phone call. 精神报酬包括表彰, 正式和非正式的。

给予这样的报酬要依靠管理层多做点努力来认可员工 的成绩。


偶尔需要举办一些精致的晚 宴或晚会, 但是一些休闲的活动往往就能达到目的。

设立正式的奖励方案筹办一些公开的表 彰仪式。

决不要忽视以祝贺性的邮件或电话的方式祝贺即便是相对渺小的成绩 Institutional pride 团体自蒙感 Finally, a law firm can compensate its lawyers by giving them cause to be proud to be a part of the firm. Law firms, as institutions, can outlive, outperform and out contribute any individual. We join firms in order to be a part of something bigger than ourselves. When firm management commits itself to building the firm as an integrated institution, with strong institutional values, and when the firm thrives as an institution, belonging to the firm becomes its own reward. 最后,律师事务所可以给予律师们身为其中一员而自豪的理由,藉此方式给律师报酬。

律师 事务所,作为公共机构,会比任何个人生存得长久,表现得出色,贡献得更多。

我们加入律 师事务所是为了超越个体的自我, 成为团体的一部分。

当事务所管理层致力于把事务所打造 成一个有着强烈的团体价值观的完善机构的时候,当事务所作为一个机构蓬勃发展的时候, 归属于这个事务所便成为了对自身的回报。

Of course, this requires management to foster a corporate identity6 that subsumes individual egos—the greater good of the group must take precedence. And the firm as an institution must meet the highest standards in every area: excellent corporate citizenship, superb client service, selfless public service, outstanding reputation. 当然,这要求管理层培养一种包含个人自我的企业身份——集体的大利益必须高于一切。

作 为机构的律师事务所必须在毎个领域符合最高的标准:一流的企业形象,优质的客户服务, 无私的公共服务,突出的声望。

In sum, lawyers—or, at least, the best lawyers—don’t work for bread alone. And law firms—or, at least, elite law firms—cannot hope to effectively recruit or retain top legal talent without an attractive package7 of psychic compensation, which means that law firm managers must attend to the same. 总之,律师们——或者,至少,最优秀的律师们——不是只为面包工作。

律师事务所——或 者,至少,最精英的律师事务所——如果不能提供富有吸引力的精神回报,不可能指望有效 地招募到或挽留住顶级的法律人才,这意味着律师事物所的经理们必须两者兼顾。

Unit4 The Last Chapter“I love you, Bob.” “我爱你,鲍勃。

” “I love you, too, Nancy” “我也爱你,南希。

” It was 2 a.m. and I was hearing my parents' voices through the thin wall separating my bedroom from theirs. Their loving reassurances were sweet, touching-and surprising. 凌晨两点,我听到与我一墙之隔的卧室中传出了父母的对话,他们对爱的表达令人愉悦,令 人感动,却也着实令人吃惊。

My parents married on September 14, 1940, after a brief courtship. She was nearing 30 and knew it was time to start a family. The handsome, well-educated man who came by the office where she worked looked like a good bet. He was captivated by her figure, her blue eyes. The romance didn't last long. 我的父母在一个简短的恋爱期后,与 1940 年 9 月 14 日结婚。

那时我母亲已经快 30 岁了, 她觉得是到了该建立家庭的时候了。

当那个英俊、受过良好教育的那字经过她的办公室时, 她觉得他应该是一个不错的人选,而那个男子也被她美妙的身体和那双蓝色的眼睛所吸引。


Seeds of difference sprouted almost immediately. She liked to travel; he hated the thought He loved golf; she did not. He was a Republican; she an ardent Democrat. They fought at the bridge table, at the dinner table, over money, over the perceived failings of their respective in-laws. To make matters worse, they owned a business together, and the everyday frustrations of life at the office came to roost at home. 很快,他们的分歧就显现出来。

她酷爱旅游,他不喜欢外出,他喜欢打高尔夫球,她却不感 兴趣:他是共和党派,而她支持民主党。

他们总是不停地吵架,从桥牌桌上吵到饭桌上,为 钱吵,互相埋怨对方的亲戚。

更糟糕的是,他们共同经营了一份生意,每天工作上的不如意 同样会被带回家吵。

There was a hope that they would change once they retired, and the furious winds did calm somewhat, but what remained steeled itself into bright, hard bitterness. “I always thought we’d…” my mother would begin, before launching into a precise listing of my father’s faults. The litany was recited so often, I can reel it off by heart today. As he listened, my father would mutter angry threats and curses. It was a miserable duet. 原来以为退休后的情况会有所改变,不错,怒火是稍稍平息了一些,但余怒却结成了强烈的 怨恨。


她反 复絮叨,以至于我至今还能背诵出来。

而父亲则气咻咻地一边威胁,一边嘟嚷着难听的骂人 话。


It wasn’t the happiest marriage, but as their 60th anniversary approached, my sister and I decided to throw a party. Sixty years was a long time, after all; why not try to make the best of things? We'd provide the cake, the balloons, the toasts, and they’d abide by one rule: no fighting. 虽然父母的婚姻并不是最幸福的,但我们姐妹俩还是决定在他们结婚 60 年时举办一 个派 对。

毕竟,60 年够长了,为什么不好好改善一下关系呢?我们为二老准备了蛋糕、气球、 祝酒辞,只求他们信守一个承诺:不再吵架。

The truce was honored. We had a wonderful day. In hindsight it was an important celebration, because soon after, things began to change for my parents. As debilitating dementia settled in, their marriage was about the only thing they wouldn’t lose. 停战协定兑现了,60 周年纪念日那天,大家都过得非常愉快。

现在肴来,那次派对真的很 重要,因为从那之后,事情开始慢慢地起了变化。

老年痴呆症的各种症状在二老 身上逐渐 显现出来,到后来,除了对方,他们什么都不记得了。

It began when their memories started to fade. Added to the frequent house-wide hunts for glasses and car keys were the groceries left behind on the counter, notices of bills left unpaid. Soon my parents couldn’t remember names of friends,then of their grandchildren. Finally they didn’t remember that they had grandchildren. 最开始是他们的记忆力开始衰退,不仅经常满屋子找眼镜和汽车钥匙,把买好的东西 落在 收银台,而且总是忘记支付账单。

很快他们连朋友和自己孙子的名字也忘了,最 后甚至不 记得自己有孙子。

These crises would have at one time set them at each other’s throats,but now they acted as a team, helping each other with searches, consoling each other with “Everyone does that” or “It’s nothing; you’re just tired.” They found new roles—bolstering each other against the fear of loss. 在过去,这种危机早就让他们斗得你死我活了。

可现在,他们却像团队一样紧密合作,帮对 方找东西,互相安慰:“人人都健忘,”“没关系,你可能就是有点累了。

”他们开始扮演新的 角色帮助对方战胜失忆的恐惧。

Financial control was the next thing to go. For all of their marriage, my parents stubbornly kept separate accounts. Sharing being unthinkable, they’d devised financial arrangements so elaborate they could trigger war at any time. He, for example, was to pay for everything outside the house; she for whatever went on inside. The who-pays dilemma was so complex for one trip that they finally gave up traveling entirely. 财务管理又是另一件麻烦事,因为他们一直顽固地分管各自的财产。

不可思议的是,他们共 同想出了很详细的财务安排,这些安排精细到随时可能触发他俩之间的战争。


谁来付费这一难题 太复 杂了,以至于他们一次旅行都难以实现,最终不得不彻底放弃。

I took over the books. Now no one knew how things got paid; no one saw how the columns that spelled their fortunes compared. Next I hired a housekeeper. Cooking and cleaning, chores my mother had long complained about, were suddenly gone. Finally— on doctors’ orders—we cleared the house of alcohol, the fuel that turned more than one quarrel into a raging fire.


从现在起他们谁也不知道账单是怎么支付的, 谁也看不到他们的名下分 别还有多少財产。


原来母亲一直抱怨家务 杂事太繁琐累人,现在也不抱怨了。

最后,在医生的嘱咐下,我们将屋里所有的酒都清理掉 了,因为那曾经多次将争吵升级到火冒三丈的地步。

You could say my parents‘ lives had been whittled away, that they could no longer engage in the business of living. But at the same time, something that had been buried deep was coming up and taking shape. I saw it when my father came home after a brief hospital stay. 可以说,我父母的生命慢慢衰弱了,他们甚至连生活都不能自理。

但同时,一些在他 们心 底埋藏很深的东西逐渐显露广出来。


We’d tried to explain my father’s absence to my mother, but because of her memory, she could not keep it in her head why he had disappeared. She asked again and again where he was, and again and again we told her. And each day her anxiety grew. 我们试图向母亲解释父亲为什么没在她身边,但她记性不好,总是忘记为什么他不见 了, 于是一遍遍地问我们父亲在哪儿,我们就一遍遍地回答她。


When I finally brought him home, we opened the front door to see my mother sitting on the sofa. As he stepped in to the room, she rose with a cry. I stayed back as he slowly walked toward her and she toward him. As they approached each other on legs rickety with age, her hands fluttered over his face. “Oh, there you are,” she said. “There you are.” 当我终于把父亲从医院接回家时,打开前门,看见母亲正坐在沙发上。

当父亲走进屋 里时, 母亲哭着站了起来。


当他俩摇摇晃晃走到一起时,母 亲颤巍巍的手滑过父亲的脸庞,喃喃地说:“你在这儿啊,你在这儿啊……” I don’t doubt that if my mother and father magically regained their old vigor, they’d be back fighting. But I now see that something came of all those years of shared days-J days of sitting at the same table, waking to the same sun, working and raising children together. Even the very fury they lavished on each other was a brick in this unseen creation, a structure that reveals itself increasingly as the world around them falls apart 我想,如果父母恢复了往日的活力,他们肯定会继续打架的。

但现在,正是因为么多年风风 雨雨一同走过:同坐在这张餐桌旁,共同迎接朝霞,一起工作,养育子女……他们之间,除 了矛盾,还有别的东西。

即使是两人之间互相发泄的怒火,到头来反倒成了促成他们关系稳 固的砖墙。


In the early morning I once again heard the voices through the wall. “Where are we?” My father asked. “I don’t know,” my mother replied softly. 第二天淸晨,隔着墙壁,我又听到他们的声音。

父亲问道:“我们在哪儿?”母亲轻声回答说: “我不知道。

” How lucky they are, I thought, to have each other. 我在想,他们多么幸运,因为他们拥有彼此。

Unit 5 Stress and HealthStress affects everyone to some degree. In fact, approximately 67% of adults indicate that they experience “great stress” at least one day a week. Stressors, the sources of stress, come in many forms, and even positive life events can increase our stress levels. 每个人或多或少都会受到压力的影响。

实际上, 大约 67%的成年人表示他们每周至少有一天 会感到“巨大的压力”。


At moderate levels, stress can motivate us to reach our goals and keep life interesting. However, when stressors are severe or chronic, our bodies may not be able to adapt successfully. Stress can compromise immune functioning, leading to a host of diseases of adaptation. In fact, stress has been linked to between 50% and 70% of all illnesses. Further, stress is associated with negative health behavior, such as alcohol and other drug use, and to psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety. Although all humans have the same physiological system for responding to stress, stress reactivity varies across individuals. In addition, the way we think about or perceive stressful situations has a significant impact on how our bodies respond. Thus,there are large individual differences in responses to stress. 适度的压力能激励我们为目标而奋斗并使我们的生活充满乐趣。

然而当压力过大并持 续出 现时, 我们的身体或许就不能适应了。

压力会危及免疫功能并导致一系列新陈代谢紊乱等病 症。

事实上,50%到 70%的疾病都与压力有关。

另外,压力也与酗酒、吸毒等不良行为以及 忧郁焦虑等心理问题密切相关。

虽然人类面对压力做出反应的生理 系统是相同的,但是不 同的个体却有着不同的反应行为。

而且我们思考和感知压力的 方式也会影响我们的身体对 压力产生的反应。


This section will review the concepts, causes and consequences of stress. Figure 1 illustrates the many factors involved in individual reactions to stress. First, stressors, such as daily hassles and major life events, will be described. Then the physiological response to stress and impact of these effects on physical and mental health will be reviewed. Finally individual differences in physiological and cognitive responses to stress and the implications of these individual differences for health and wellness will be discussed. 这一节将回顾压力的概念,其产生的原因和后果。

图 1 列出了影响个体对压力做出反 应的 因素。


然后探讨的是人们对压力做出 的生理反应以及由此带来的对人身心的影响。

最后讨论的则是人们对压力做出的生理反应和 认知反应的个体差异以及这些差异给身心健康带来的影响。

The first step in managing stress is to recognize the causes and to be aware of the symptoms. You need to recognize the factors in your life that cause stress. Identify the things that make you feel “stressed out”. Everything from minor irritations, such as traffic jams, to major life change, such as births, deaths, or job loss, can be stressors. A stress overload of too many demands on your time can make you feel that you are no longer in control. You may feel so overwhelmed that you become depressed. Recognizing the causes and effects of stress is important for learning how to manage it.


你需要知道生活中的 哪些因素会使你感受到压力,并找出那些让你“倍受压力”的事物。

从交通堵塞这样的恼人小 事到出生、死亡或失业等重大的人生变化,每件事情都可能成为压力的来源。

同时有太多事 要做时,压力会让你感到力不从心,甚至极度沮丧。

认清压力产生的原因和带来的结果有助 于我们更好地应对压力。

Stress has a variety of sources. There are many kinds of stresses. Environmental stressors include heat, noise, overcrowding, climate, and terrain. Physiological stressors are such things as drugs, caffeine, tobacco, injury, infection or disease, and physical effort. 压力的来源多种多样,压力的种类也各不相同。

环境压力源包括炎热、吵闹、熙攘的人群、 气候和地势。

生理压力源则包括各种药品、咖啡因、烟草、受伤、传染病或疾病,以及身体 劳累。

Emotional stressors are the most frequent and important stressors. Some people refer to these as psychosocial stressors. These include life-changing events, such as a change in work hours or line of work, family illnesses, deaths of relatives or friends, and increased responsibilities. In school, pressures such as grades, term papers, and oral presentations induce stress. 最常见和最重要的是情绪压力源。


它包括改变生活的各 种事件,例如工作时间变更或转换行业、家人生病、亲朋好友去世以及责任增加。

对学生来 说,成绩、考试和课堂讲演都会带来压力。

Stressors vary in severity. Because stressors vary in magnitude and duration, many experts categorize them by severity. Major stressors create major emotional turmoil or require tremendous amounts of adjustment. This category includes personal crises (e.g. major health problems or death in the family, divorce/separation, financial problems, legal problems) and job/school-related pressures or major age-related transition (e.g. college, marriage, career, retirement). Minor stressors are generally viewed as shorter-term or less severe. This category includes events or problems such as traffic hassles peer/work relations, time pressures, and family squabbles. Major stressors can alter daily patterns of stress and impair our ability to handle the minor stressors of life, while minor stressors can accumulate and create more significant problems. It is important to be aware of both types of stressors, 压力源的严重程度也各不相同。

因为压力源在强弱程度和持续时间上都有变化, 所以许多专 家都按照严重程度来区分它们。

主要的压力源会导致大的情绪起伏, 需要进行大的情绪调整。

这一类的压力源包括个人危机(如:家人的重大健康问题或去世、离婚/分居、金融危机、 触犯法律等)和工作/学习危机或成长过渡期的变化(如:上大学、结婚、工作、退休等)。

次 要的压力源往往持续时间较短或程度较弱。

这一类的压力源包括如交通争执、 与同龄人/同 事的关系、时间压力和家庭口角等问题。

主要压力源会影响我们每天的压力状况,并削弱我 们应对生活中次要压力的能力, 而次要压力源的积累也可能会导致一些更大的问题出现。

人 们必须清楚地认识这两种压力源。

Negative, ambiguous, and uncontrollable events are usually the most stressful. Although stress can come from both positive and negative events, negative ones generally cause more distress because negative stressors usually have harsher consequences and little benefit. Positive stressors, on the other hand, usually have enough benefit to make them worthwhile. For example,

although the stress of getting ready for a wedding may be tremendous, it is not as bad as the negative stress associated with losing a job. 负面、 莫名其妙和不可控制的事情往往会给人带来最大的压力。

虽然正面事件和负面事件都 会带来压力,但是一般说来,负面事件带来的压力会更甚,因为负面压力源常常会造成更严 峻的后果却不能带来一点好处。

相比之下, 正面压力源通常会带来足够的好处从而使承受压 力变成一件值得的事。

举例来说,虽然准备婚礼的压力可能会是巨大的,但再怎么也不会大 到像失业那样。

Ambiguous stressors are harder to accept than are more clearly defined problems. In most cases, if the cause of a stress or problem can be identified, active measures can be taken to improve the situation. For example, if you are stressed about a project at work or school, you can use specific strategies to help you complete the task on time. Stress brought on by a relationship with friends or co-workers, on the other hand, may be harder to understand. In some cases, it is not possible to determine the primary source or cause of the problem. These situations are more problematic because fewer clear-cut solutions exist. 不明确的压力源比已清楚界定的压力源更难令人接受。

大多数情况下, 如果能找到产生压力 的原因,人们就会积极采取措施来改善状况。

比方说,如果你正因为工作或学习上的某个项 目而感到压力重重, 你就可能找到有针对性的方法使自己能在规定时间内完成任务。

但另一 方面, 由朋友或同事关系带来的压力就没这么容易理解了。

很多时候根本就找不到问题的主 要源头或原因。


Another factor that makes events stressful is a lack of control. Stress brought on by illness, accidents, or natural disasters fit into this category. Because little can be done to change the situation, these events leave us feeling powerless. If the stressor is something that can be dealt with more directly, efforts at minimizing the stress are likely to be effective. 无法控制局面是产生压力的另一个原因,包括疾病、意外或是属于这类事件的自然灾害。

因 为无法改变现状,这类事件常令我们觉得无能为力。

如果能更直接地应对压力,减少压力的 努力则大有可能生效。

The nature and magnitude of stressors change during the life span. Depending on your perspective, some periods in life are more stressful than others, but each phase has its own challenges and experiences. Some argue that adolescence represents the more stressful time of life. Drastic changes in a person’s body and numerous psychosocial challenges must be overcome. College provides additional mental challenges as well as financial pressures and the pressures of living independently. During the early adult years, tremendous pressures and responsibilities force you to juggle career and family obligations. Late adulthood presents still other new challenges such as coping with declining functioning or illness. Although the nature of the stressor changes, the presence of stress remains consistent. 压力的性质和严重程度的变化会伴随人的一生。

一个人看问题的视角决定了他/她生命中哪 些阶段压力最大, 而生命的每个阶段又有着各自的经历和挑战。

有人认为青春期是人的一生 中压力最大的时候。


大学阶段,人又面临着心理上的其 他挑战,同时也要面对经济压力和独立生活的压力。

在刚成人的时候,巨大的压力和责任使 你不得不兼顾事业和家庭责任。


虽然 压力源的性质发生了变化,但压力本身都是始终存在的。

College presents unique challenges and stressors. For college students, schoolwork can be a full-time job, and those who have to work outside of school must handle the stress of both jobs. Although the college years are often thought of as a break from the stress of the real world, college life has its own stressors, obvious source of stress include taking exams, speaking in public, and becoming comfortable with talking to professors. Students are often living independently of family for the first time while negotiating new relationships-with roommates, dating partners, and so on. Young people entering college are also faced with a less structured environment and with the need to control their own schedules. Though this environment has a number of advantages, students are faced with a greater need to manage their stress effectively. 大学生活带来了独特的挑战和压力。

对大学生来说,学习可以是(生活的)全部,但边读书 边打工的学生就得处理来自双方面的压力了。

虽然一般人认为大学是远离现实社会压力的绝 佳时机,但大学生活也有其自身特有的压力源,显而易见的压力源有考试、公开讲演和怎样 与教授自如交谈等。

学生们常常是第一次离开家独立生活,同时要处理新的人际关系——和 室友相处、约会对象等。

进入大学后,年轻人还将面对一个相对宽松的环境,需要培养自主 安排时间的能力。

虽然这样的环境有很多优点, 但也为学生们处理由此带来的压力提出了更 高的要求。

In addition to the traditional challenges of college, the new generation of students faces stressors that were not typical for college students in the past. According to the American Council on Education, only 40% of today’s college students enroll full-time immediately after high school. Once in college, more students now work to support their studies, and many go back to school after spending time in the working world. These students are likely to have additional pressures not characteristic of the typical college student. Further, more of today’s students are the first in their families to go to college. This may place additional pressure on these students to succeed. Perhaps as a result of some of these factors, rates of mental health problems among college students have increased dramatically. A study from the American College Health Association indicated that 10% of college students are diagnosed with depression. In another study, 53% of students reported feeling depressed at some point during their college careers and 9% have reported considering suicide. Although more people ate receiving cure for mental health problems than in the past, the vast majority are still not receiving adequate care. University counseling centers are typically understaffed and unable to handle the increasing number of college students seeking mental health service. 除了传统压力之外,新一代的大学生还面临着新的压力源。

据美国教育委员 会统计,高中毕业后只有 40%的学生会入学注册为全日生学习。

一旦进入大学,更多的学 生会选择打工来赚取学费, 另一些人则工作一段时间后再到大学去学习。

这些学生承受的压 力比其他的大学生要大。

进一步讲,如今的大学生大多是家中第一个上大学的人,这个现实 将给他们的成功之路增加更多的压力。

或许正是由于这些因素, 大学生的心理健康问题日益 突现。

美国大学健康协会的研究结果表明有 10%的大学生被诊断为抑郁症。

另一项研究成 果则表明,有 53%的学生在大学期间都有过抑郁的感觉,还有 9%的学生曾经想过要自杀。

虽然与过去相比, 现在有更多的人正在接受心理健康治疗, 但是绝大多数人仍享受不到充分 的治疗。

大学心理咨询中心通常人手不足, 难以应对不断增长的需要心理健康服务的学生人 数。

Unit6 Feathers from a Thousand Li AwayThe old woman remembered a swan she had bought many years ago in Shanghai for a foolish sum. This bird, boasted the market vendor, was once a duck that stretched its neck in hopes of becoming a goose, and now look! —it is too beautiful to eat. 这位老太太至今记得, 多年前, 她在上海, 曾傻乎乎地出了个大价钱, 在菜市上买下一只“天 鹅”。

这只被小贩吹得天花乱坠的家禽,曾像丑小鸭般拼命伸着脖子,企图能成为一只真正 的天鹅。


Then the woman and the swan sailed across an ocean many thousands of li wide, stretching their necks toward America. On her journey she cooed to the swan: “In America I will have a daughter just like me. But over there nobody will say her worth is measured by the loudness of her husband’s belch. Over there nobody will look down on her, because I will make her speak only perfect American English. And over there she will always be too full to swallow any sorrow! She will know my meaning, because I will give her this swan—a creature that became more than what was hoped for.” 后来,这个女人带着天鹅离乡背井,越江过海,直奔美国。

在滔滔的海面上,她和它,都伸 直了脖子朝美国的方向眺望着。


但在美国,她 却无须仰仗丈夫鼻息度日。

在美国,不会有人歧视她,因为,我会让她说一口流利漂亮的美 式英语。


她会领略我的一番苦心,我要她成为一只比期望中还要 好上一百倍的漂亮的天鹅!”在驶往美国的旅途中,她轻声对那只天鹅私语着。

But when she arrived in the new country, the immigration officials pulled her swan away from her, leaving the woman fluttering her arms and with only one swan feather for a memory. And then she had to fill out so many forms she forgot why she had come and what she had left behind. 然而她的脚一踩上这片新的国土, 移民局便强令她与天鹅分手了。

她无奈地向它挥扬着双臂, 然而天鹅留给她的,只是一根羽毛。


她已经完全忘 记了,为什么她要千里迢迢来到美国,还有,在自己身后,她舍弃的又是什么。

Now the woman was old. And she had a daughter who grew up speaking only English and swallowing more Coca-Cola than sorrow. For a long time now the woman had wanted to give her daughter the single swan feather and tell her, “This feather may look worthless, but it comes from afar and carries with it all my good intentions.” And she waited, year after year, for the day she could tell her daughter this in perfect American English. 现在这个女人已垂垂老矣。


女儿已长大成人了,只会说英语,咽下的可口 可乐要多于悲伤。

好久以来,这个老妇一直想把这根天鹅羽毛留给女儿,并跟她说:“这根 羽毛也许看似很普通,然而所谓千里鹅毛一片心呀!”如是冬去春来,年复一年,她一直期待 着有一天,她能以流畅的美式英语,把这个故事告诉她的女儿。

Jing-Mei Woo 吴精美的故事

My mother believed you could be anything you wanted to be in America. You could open a restaurant. You could work for the government and get good retirement. You could buy a house with almost no money down. You could become rich. You could become instantly famous. 妈相信,在美国,任何梦想都能成为现实。

你可以做一切你想做的:开家餐馆,或者在政府 部门工作,以期得到很高的退休金。


你有可能发 财,也有可能出人头地,反正,到处是机会。

“Of course you can be prodigy, too,” my mother told me when I was nine. “You can be best anything. What does Auntie Lindo know? Her daughter, she is only best tricky.” 在我九岁时,妈就对我说:“你也能成为天才。


琳达阿姨算 什么? 她那女儿,只不过心眼多一点而已。

” America was where all my mother’s hopes lay. She had come here after losing everything: her mother and father, her family home, her first husband, and two daughters, twin baby girls. But she never looked back with regret. There were so many ways for things to get better. 妈将一切希望都寄托在美国这片土地上。

她丧失了一切:双亲、家园、她的前夫和一对孪生 女儿,但她从不悔恨过往。


We didn’t immediately pick the right kind of prodigy. At first my mother thought I could be a Chinese Shirley Temple'. We’d watch Shirley’s old movies on TV as though they were training films. My mother would poke my arm and say, “Ni kan”— you watch. And I would see Shirley tapping her feet, or singing a sailor song, or pursing her lips into a very round O while saying, “Oh my goodness.” 至于我将成为哪方面的天才,我妈并不急于立时拍板定案。

起初,她认为我完全可以成为一 个中国的秀兰· 邓波儿。

我们看电视里秀兰· 邓波儿的旧片子,好像当作培训片来看一样。

每 每这时,妈便会抬起我的手臂往屏幕频频挥动:“你看,”——这用的是汉语。

而我,也确实 看见秀兰在跳踢踏舞, 或在演唱一支水手歌, 有时, 则将嘴唇撅成个圆圆的“O”字, 说一声“哦, 我的上帝。

” “Ni kan,” said my mother as Shirley’s eyes flooded with tears. “You already know how. Don’t need talent for crying!” 当屏幕上的秀兰双眼满噙着晶莹的泪珠时,妈又说了:“你看,你早就会哭了。

哭不需要什 么天分!” Soon after my mother got this idea about Shirley Temple, she took me to a beauty training school in the Mission district and put me in the hands of a student who could barely hold the scissors without shaking. Instead of getting big fat curls, I emerged with an uneven mass of crinkly black fuzz. My mother dragged me off to the bathroom and tried to wet down my hair as if I had done this on purpose. 立时,妈有了培养目标了。

她把我带到附近一家美容培训班开办的理发店,把我交到一个学 员手里。

这个学生,甚至连剪刀都拿不稳,经她一番折腾,我的头发没有变成一头漂亮的卷 发,反而成了一堆稀浓不均的黑鬈毛。

妈将我拽出来,拉到卫生间,企图把我的头发弄湿再 弄直,仿佛我是故意和她作对似的。

The instructor of the beauty training school had to lop off these soggy clumps to make my hair even again. “Peter Pan" is very popular these days,” the instructor assured my mother. I now had hair the length of a boy’s, with straight-across bangs that hung at a slant two inches above eyebrows. I liked the haircut and it made me actually look forward to my future fame. 美容培训班的指导老师不得不亲自出马, 再操起剪刀来把我头上那湿漉漉的一团团剪掉。

“彼 得· 潘的式样,近日是非常流行的,”那位指导老师向妈吹嘘着。

我的头发,已剪成个男孩子 样,前面留着笔直的刘海,离我眉毛两英寸高。

我挺喜欢这个发型,它令我确信,我将前途 无量。

In fact, in the beginning, I was just as excited as my mother, maybe even more so. I pictured this prodigy part of me as many different images, trying each one on for size. I was a dainty ballerina girl standing by the curtains, waiting to hear the right music that would send me floating on my tiptoes. I was like the Christ child lifted out of the straw manger, crying with holy indignity. I was Cinderella stepping from her pumpkin carriage with sparkly cartoon music filling the air. 确实刚开始,我跟妈一样兴奋,或许要更兴奋。

我憧憬着自己各种不同的天才形象,犹如一 位已在天幕一侧摆好优美姿势的芭蕾舞演员,只等着音乐的响起,即踮起足尖翩然起舞。

我 就像降生在马槽里的圣婴,带着神圣而羞辱的哭声;我就是从南瓜马车上下来的灰姑娘,周 围回响着动听的卡通音乐… In all of my imaginings, I was filled with a sense that I would soon become perfect. My mother and father would adore me. I would be beyond reproach. I would never feel the need to sulk for anything. 反正我觉得,我很快就会变得十分完美:父母会称赞我,我再不会挨骂,我会应有尽有,不 用为着没有能得到某样心仪的东西而赌气不快。

But sometimes the prodigy in me became impatient. “If you don’t hurry up and get me out of here, I’m disappearing for good,” it warned. “And then you’ll always be nothing.” 然而看来, 天才本身对我, 颇有点不耐烦了: “你再不成才, 我就走了, 再也不来光顾你了, ” 它警告着,“这一来,你就什么也没有了。

” Every night after dinner, my mother and I would sit at the Formica kitchen table. She would present new tests, taking her examples from stories of amazing children she had read in Ripley’s Believe It or Not, or Good Housekeeping, Reader’s Digest, and a dozen other magazines she kept in a pile in our bathroom. My mother got these magazines from people whose houses she cleaned. And since she cleaned many houses each week, we had a great assortment. She would look through them all, searching for stories about remarkable children. 每天晚饭后,我和妈就坐在厨房桌边,她每天给我作一些新的智力测试,这些测试题目,是 她从《信不信由你》 、 《好管家》 、 《读者文摘》等杂志里收罗来的。

我们的浴室里有一大堆这 样的旧杂志, 那是妈从她做清洁工的那些住户家里要来的。

每周, 她为好几户住户做清洁工。


The first night she brought out a story about a three-year-old boy who knew the capitals of all the states and even most of the European countries. A teacher was quoted as saying the little boy could also pronounce the names of the foreign cities correctly.

开始这种测试的当晚,她就给我讲了一个三岁神童的故事,他能熟练地背出各州的首府,甚 至大部分欧洲国家的名字。


“What’s the capital of Finland?” my mother asked me, looking at the magazine story. “芬兰的首都是哪儿?”于是,母亲看着杂志上的故事开始问我了。

All I knew was the capital of California, because Sacramento lived on in Chinatown. “Nairobi!” I guessed, saying the most foreign word I could think of. She checked to see if that was possibly one way to pronounce “Helsinki” before showing me the answer. 天呀,我只知道加州的首府!因为我们在唐人街上住的街名,就叫萨克拉门托。

“内罗毕!”只 能瞎蒙了, 我冒出一个莫名其妙的, 所能想象得出的最奇特的外国名字。

在告诉我答案之前, 她开始查找,试图弄清楚这是不是“赫尔辛基”的另一种读法。

The tests got harder—multiplying numbers in my head, finding the queen of hearts in a deck of cards, trying to stand on my head without using my hands, predicting the daily temperatures in Los Angeles, New York, and London. 测试的题目越来越复杂了:心算乘法,在一副扑克牌里抽出红心皇后,不用手而用头做倒立 动作,预测洛杉矶、纽约和伦敦的气温。

One night I had to look at a page from the Bible for three minutes add then report everything I could remember. “Now Jehoshaphat had riches and honor in abundance and... that’s all I remember, Ma,” I said. 还有一次,妈让我读三分钟《圣经》 ,然后说出我所读过的内容。

“现在,约沙法有丰厚的财 富和荣誉…妈,我只记得这一句。


And after seeing my mother’s disappointed face once again, something inside of me began to die. I hated the tests, the raised hopes and failed expectations. Before going to bed that night, I looked in the mirror above the bathroom sink and when I saw only my face staring back—and that it would always be this ordinary face—I began to cry. Such a sad, ugly girl! I made high-pitched noises like a crazed animal, trying to scratch out the face in the mirror. 再次看到妈失望的眼神之后,我内心对成才的激动和向往,也消失了。

我开始憎恨这样的测 试,每一次都足以满怀希望开始,以失望而告终。

那晚上床之前,我站在浴室的洗脸盆镜子 前, 看到一张普普通通, 毫无出众之处的哭丧着的脸, 而且以后也一直会是这样——我哭了。

多么难过和丑陋的女孩我尖叫着,跺脚,就像一只发怒的小兽,拼命去抓镜中那个丑女孩的 脸。

And then I saw what seemed to be the prodigy side of me—because I had never seen that face before. I looked at my reflection, blinking so I could see more clearly. The girl staring back at me was angry, powerful. This girl and I were the same. I had new thoughts, willful thoughts, or rather thoughts filled with lots of won’ts. I won’t let her change me, I promised myself. I won’t be what I’m not. 随后,我似乎发现了自己真正天才的一面,眨眨眼睛,我清楚地看着镜中的女孩,她愤怒又 强大,这个女孩就是我。

此时我有了一个新的顽固的念头,或者说一个要(对母亲)说很多 “不”的念头。

我就是我, 我不愿让她来任意改变我。


Unit7 The BumI had come to Vera Cruz from Mexico City to catch one of the Ward Company s white cool ships to Yucatan; and found to my dismay that, a dock strike having been declared over-night, my ship would not put in. I was stuck in Vera Cruz. 我从墨西哥城来到维拉克鲁斯, 打算搭乘沃德公司的白色凉船去尤卡坦州, 却沮丧地发现一 夜之间码头工人宣布罢工,我的船不能进港靠岸,我被困在了维拉克鲁斯。

I took a room in the Hotel Diligencias overlooking the plaza and spent the morning looking at the sights of the town. Having seen all that was to be seen. 1 sat down in the coolness of the arcade that surrounded the square and ordered a drink. I watched the people crossing the square; Negroes. Indians. Creoles, and Spanish, the motley people of the Spanish Main; and they varied in color from ebony to ivory. 我在德里琴西亚旅馆订了一间俯瞰广场的房间。


看完了所有该 看的东西,我在广场周围阴凉的拱廊下面坐下,要了一杯饮料。

我看着人们在广场上穿梭, 黑人、印度人、克里奥耳人、西班牙人,还有来自美洲大陆加勒比海沿岸的混色人种;他们 的肤色从黑色到象牙色,深浅不一。

My attention was attracted by a beggar who had hair and beard of a red so vivid that it was startling. He wore only a pair of trousers and a cotton singlet, but they were tatters, grimy and foul, that barely held together. I have never seen anyone so thin; his legs, his naked arms were but skin and bone, and through the rents of his singlet you saw every rib of his wasted body '; you could count the bones of his dust-covered feet. 我的注意力被一名乞丐吸引了。


他只穿了一条裤子和一件棉质汗衫,但这些破衣烂衫污秽不堪,发出一股恶臭,几乎不能蔽 体。

我还从未看到过如此消瘦的人,他的双腿、他裸露的胳膊只剩下皮包骨头,透过他汗衫 的破缝,你看得见他瘦弱身体上的每一根肋骨,你可以数得清他沾满尘土的双脚上的骨头。

He was the only one of the beggars who did not speak. He did not even hold out his hand, he merely looked at you, but with such wretchedness in his eyes, such despair in his attitude, it was dreadful; he stood on and on, silent and immobile, gazing steadfastly, and then, if you took no notice of him, he moved slowly to the next table. I had nothing to give him and when he came to me, so that he should not wait in vain, I shook my head. 他是乞丐中唯一一个不说话的人,他甚至不伸手,他只是看着你,双眼透着不幸,神态如此 绝望,令人感到可怕。


如果没有人理他, 他就慢慢地挪到邻桌。

我没有东西可以给他,所以当他来到我面前时,我摇摇头,免得他白 等一场。

But he paid no attention. He stood in front of me, for as long as he stood at the other tables, looking at me with tragic eyes. I have never seen such a wreck of humanity. There was something terrifying in his appearance. He did not look quite sane. At length he passed on. 但他却无视这一点。



他的外表有种令人恐惧的东西,而且他看起来神志不 清。


It was still very hot, towards evening a breath of air coming in through the windows tempted me into the plaza. I saw once more that strange, red-bearded fellow and watched him stand motionless, with the crushed and piteous air, before one table after another. He did not stop before mine. I supposed he remembered me from the morning and having failed to get anything from me then thought it useless to try again. 天还是很热,快到傍晚的时候,有一丝风透过窗户吹了进来,诱使我来到了广场。

我再次看 到了那个奇怪的红胡子家伙,看着他一动不动地站在桌子面前,一桌接一桌地走,显得颓丧 又可怜。

他没有在我的桌子前停留,我猜他从早晨开始就记住我了,因为没有从我这里要到 东西,便觉得再来也是无用。

Since there was nothing else to do, I stayed on till the thinning crowd suggested it was bed-time.' I had suddenly a strange feeling that I had seen him before. I felt sure that I had come across him, but when and where I could not tell. 既然无事可做,我便在广场待着,直到渐渐稀疏的人群暗示我就寝时间到了。

我突然有一种 奇怪的感觉我以前见过他。


I spent my second day at Vera Cruz as I had spent the first. But I watched for the coming of the red-haired beggar, and as he stood at the tables near mine I examined him with attention. I felt certain now that I had seen him somewhere. I even felt certain that I had known him and talked to him, but I still could recall none of the circumstances. Once more he passed my table without stopping and when his eyes met mine I looked in them for some gleam of recollection. Nothing. I racked my brains. I went over in my mind the possible occasions when I might have met him. Not to be able to place him exasperated me as it does when you try to remember a name that is on the tip of your tongue and yet eludes you. The day wore on. 我在维拉克鲁斯度过的第二天和第一天差不多。

但我留意着红头发乞丐的到来, 而当他站在 我附近的桌边时,我用心打量了他。

我现在确信我在哪里见过他,我甚至确信我认识他,还 和他说过话,但是仍然想不出是在什么场合。


当他的 目光和我的相遇时,我在他的眼中寻找往事记忆的流露,但还是什么也没有。

我绞尽脑汁, 在脑海里反复搜寻我可能遇见他的场合。

因为想不起能和他对上号的任何场合, 我非常恼火, 这就和你竭力想记起一个就在嘴边的姓名却怎么也想不起的时候一样。

这一天在慢慢地过 去。

It was Sunday and the plaza was more crowded than ever. As usual the red-haired beggar came along, a terrifying figure in his silence. He was standing in front of a table only two from mine, without a gesture. Then I saw the policeman who at intervals tried to protect the public from the importunities of all these beggars sneak round a column and give him a resounding whack with his thong. His thin body winced, but he made no protest and showed no resentment. The cruel stripe had whipped my memory and suddenly I remembered. 这天是星期天,广场上比往常拥挤。


他站 在离我只有两张桌子距离的另一张桌子前面,没有任何手势。

接着我看到一名警察,他不时 地出现以保护大家免受乞丐纠缠强乞之苦。

这名警察从柱子后面溜出来, 用他的皮鞭使劲抽


他瘦弱的身体退缩了一下,但是他没有表示反抗,也没有表 现出怨恨。


Not his name; that escaped me still, but everything else. He must have recognized me, for I have not changed very much in twenty years, and that was why after that first morning he had never paused in front of my table. Yes, it was twenty years since I had known him. I was spending a winter in Rome and every evening I used to dine in a restaurant in the Via Sistina where you got excellent macaroni and a good bottle of wine. It was frequented by a little band of English and American art students, and one or two writers; and we used to stay late into the night engaged in interminable arguments upon art and literature. He was only a boy then, he could not have been more than 22; and with his blue eyes, straight nose, and red hair he was pleasing to look at. I remembered that he spoke a great deal of Central America, he had had a job with the American Fruit Company, but had thrown it over because he wanted to be a writer. He was not popular among us because he was arrogant and we were none of us old enough to take the arrogance of youth with tolerance. He thought us poor fish and did not hesitate to tell us so. He would not show us his work, because our praise meant nothing to him and he despised our censure, his vanity was enormous. 不是他的名字,那名字我还是没想起来,但除此之外我全想起来了。

他肯定已经认出我了, 因为这 20 年来我没有太大的变化,而这正是第一个上午之后他再也没有在我的桌子前停留 原因。

是的,我认识他有 20 年了。


每天晚上,我总在西斯蒂娜路 上的一家餐馆吃饭, 在那里你可以品尝到优质的通心粉和上好的葡萄酒。

一群英国和美国的 文科大学生,还有一两位作家,经常光顾这家饭店。

我们经常就艺术和文学话题展开无休止 的争论,直到深夜。

他那时只是个大男孩,不超过 22 岁。

他长得很好看,蓝眼睛、高鼻梁、 红头发。

我记得他讲过很多中美洲的事情,他在美国水果公司有一份工作,但放弃了,因为 他想成为一名作家。


而我们中间没有一个人年 长到有足够的宽容来接受他的傲慢。

他认为我们是些愚蠢又可怜的人, 而且还会毫无顾忌地 告诉我们。

他不愿意给我们看他的作品,因为我们的赞美对他毫无意义,他也蔑视我们的批 评,非常自负。

I recalled his high spirits, his vitality, his confidence in the future, and his disinterestedness. It was impossible that it was the same man, and yet I was sure of it. I stood up, paid for my drink, and went out into the plaza to find him. My thoughts were in a turmoil. I was aghast. I could never have imagined that he was reduced to this frightful misery. I asked myself what had happened. What hopes deferred had broken his spirit, what disappointments shattered him, and what lost illusions ground him to the dust? I asked myself if nothing could be done. I walked round the plaza. The light was waning and I was afraid I had lost him. Then I passed the church and saw him sitting on the steps. I went up to him. 我回想起那时他高涨的情绪、他的活力、他对未来的信心,还有他的冷漠。

这个红发乞丐就 是他,这怎么可能?然而我确信就是他。


我的思绪一片混 乱。



我问自己发生了什么事,是 什么样的希望迟迟不能实现摧毁了他的精神, 是什么样的失意将他击垮, 是什么样的幻想破 灭将他逼向屈辱?我问自己是否已经无计可施。


天色渐渐暗了下来,我担 心会找不到他。


“Do you remember Rome?” I said. “你记得罗马吗?”我说道。

He did not move. He did not answer. He took no more notice of me than if I were not standing before him. I did not know what to do. I took a yellow-backed note out of my pocket and pressed it in his hand, he did not give it a glance. But his hand moved a little, the thin claw-like fingers closed on the note and scrunched it up; ho made it into a little ball and then flicked it into the air so that it fell among the jangling buzzards I turned my head instinctively and saw one of them seize it in his beak and fly off followed by two others screaming behind it. When I looked back the man was gone. 他一动不动,也不回答。


我不知道该怎么办 了。


但他的那只手微 微动了动。

那瘦得像爪子一样的手指收拢后握住钞票把它揉成一团,然后仍向空中,正好落 在一群聒噪不安的秃鹰之中。

我本能地一扭头,看见一只秃鹰叼住钞票飞走了,另外有两只 跟在后面尖叫着飞过。


I stayed three more days in Vera Cruz. I never saw him again. 我在维拉克鲁斯又待了三天,但再也没见到他。

Unit 10 America’s Failure in Science EducationFor anyone concerned about strengthening America’s long-term leadership in science and technology, the nation’s schools are an obvious place to start. But brace yourself for what you’ll find. The depressing reality is that when it comes to educating the next generation in these subjects, America is no longer a world contender. In fact, US students have fallen far behind their competitors in much of Western Europe and in Asian nations like Japan and the Republic of Korea. 对于那些关注如何增强美国在科技方面长期领导力的人来说,教育无疑是首先要考虑的阵 地。


显示令人沮丧,在下一代理科教育方面,美国已经不再 领先于世界。

事实上,美国学生远远落后于大部分西欧国家和日本、韩国等发达亚洲国家的 学生。

This trend has disturbing implications not just for the future of the American technological leadership but for the broader economy. Already, “we have developed a shortage of highly skilled workers and a surplus of lesser-skilled workers,” warned Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan in a March 12 address at Boston College. And the problem is worsening. “We’re graduating too few skilled workers to address the apparent imbalance between the supply of such workers and die burgeoning demand for them,” Greenspan added 对于美国未来科技领导力乃至美国整体经济而言, 这均是一个令人堪忧的事实。

美联储主席 艾伦· 格林斯潘 3 月 12 号再波士顿学院的演讲中已经提出警告:“目前高技能劳动力短缺, 低技能劳动力已经供过于求。


格林斯潘接着说:“高技能毕业生数量明显 不足以应对高技能劳动力的需求,两者之间呈现出显著的不平衡状态。

” As a result, “the future strength of the US science and engineering workforce is imperiled,” the National Science Board warned in a sweeping report issued last year. 而结果呢,正如全国科学委员会去年一份总结报告说的那样: 美国 未来理工类人才实力将岌 岌可危。

Global competition 全球竞争 Until now, America has compensated for its failure to adequately educate the next generation by importing brainpower. In 2000, a stunning 38% of US jobs requiring a Ph.D. in science or technology were filled by people who were born abroad, up from 24% in 1990, according to the NSB. Similarly, doctoral positions at the nation’s leading universities are often filled with foreign students. 至今, 美国已经通过输入人才的方式来弥补其在下一代教育方面的失败。

据全国科学委员会 报道: 2000 年, 美国 38%需要理工博士学位的工作是由外国人做的, 远远高于 1990 年的 24%, 这是个令人震惊的事实。


However, because the “the global competition for science and engineering talent is intensifying... the US may not be able to rely on the international market to fill our unmet needs,” warns the NSB. Indeed, as globalization accelerates, bright young Indian or Chinese scientists may well have better opportunities at home than in the US. 然而,正如全国科学委员会警告:由于全球对理工人才的竞争在加剧,美国不能依赖国际市 场来满足国内不足的需求。

随着全球化的加速, 年轻聪慧的印度科学家和中国科学家在本国 完全有更好的机会。

The consequences of this could be enormous. Because the quality of a nation’s workforce has such a huge influence on productivity, effective school reform could easily stimulate the economy more than conventional strategies, such as the Bush tax cuts. Consider what would happen if the US could raise the performance of its high school students on math and science to the levels of Western Europe within a decade. According to Eric A. Hunushek, a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. US gross domestic product growth would then be 4% higher than otherwise by 2025 and 10% higher in 30 years. 由此产生的影响是巨大的。

劳动力素质对于一个国家生产力有重大影响, 所以比起常规策略, 比如布什政府采取的减税方案, 有效的教育改革更能刺激经济发展, 如果十年之内美国中学 生数理成绩提升到西欧中学生的水平, 设想一下情况会怎样。

斯坦福大学胡佛研究院高级研 究人员埃里克 A 哈努谢克认为:如果这样,到 2025 年,美国 GDP 会上升 4%;30 年后, 上升 10%。

That may not sound like much. But Hanushek figures that the 4% annual increase alone would be enough to offset the entire cost of America's public K-12 school system for the same year. 这听上去好像并不怎么样,可是哈努谢克指出:4%的年增幅就等于美国全年从幼儿园到高 中全部公立教育计划的全部经费。

Science left behind 幕后的科技 Here's where the problem begins with science education: By the time US students reach their senior year of high school, they rank below their counterparts in 17 other countries in math and science literacy, according to the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, completed in 1996-1997, the largest international study of student achievement ever conducted. In physics, US high school seniors scored last among 16 countries tested. 美国理科教育的问题就是这么产生的:美国高中生的理科水平低于其他 17 个国家高中生。

这是 1996-1997 年完成的第三次国际数学和科学调查得出的结果。

该调查是有史以来进行的 最大规模的学业表现调查。

在被调查的 16 个国家中,美国高中生的物理水平倒数第一。

Ironically, President Bush’s education-reform initiative. No Child Left Behind, may be exacerbating the problem, at least for now. Because NCLB now requires that students be tested just in reading and math (science tests won’t be added until 2007). "some teachers are being told to stop teaching science and get back to reading and math.” complains Gerald Wheeler, executive director of the National Science Teachers Assn which represents more than 50,000 science teachers.

布什总统名为“一个都不能落下”的教育改革方案可能让情况变得更糟糕,至少目前看来如 此,这点真的颇带讽刺意味。

这个教改方案只测试学生阅读和数学水平(2007 年才加上科 学测试) 。

杰拉尔德 惠勒抱怨道:“有人让老师不要教科学,于是就教阅读和数学算了。

” 杰拉尔德是代表美国 50,000 名科学教师的机构——美国国家科学教师协会的执行董事。

One result is that most high school graduates aren't adequately prepared for college level science courses. Indeed, the NSTA reports that just 26% of 2003 high school graduates scored high enough on the ACT science test to have a good chance of completing a first-year college science course. That’s one reason, why enrollments of US students in science and engineering majors has been flat or declining - even as demand for many of these skills increases. 结果呢。


美国国家科学教师协会报告说,2003 年毕业的中学生,只有 26%高考时在理科课程取得高分,从而有能力完成大一的理科课程。

因而被录取到理工专业的美国学生人数近几年呈持平或缩减的趋势, 尽管需要理工技能的岗 位在增加。

Ill-equipped teachers 教师素质偏低 The upshot: The US now ranks below 13 other countries – including Japan, Germany and Republic of Korea in the percentage of 24-year olds with a college degree in these subjects, down from third place 25 years ago. You don’t have to be a scientist to recognize a t e status quo is a recipe for big trouble—or that reversing this slide will require stronger federal leadership and more money. 其结果:拥有理工专业本科学位的大学毕业生比例,美国的排名由 25 年前的第三滑到了如 今的第十四,落后于日本,德国和韩国。

你无需成为科学家也能明白目前的情况令人担忧, 而需要改变和扭转局面,联邦政府必须加强领导和投资。

Consider one root cause of the problem: the severe shortage of qualified science teachers. An astonishing 28% of those who teach at least one science class in 7th to 12th grades don’t have a major or minor in science, according to Richard M. Ingersoll. an education professor at the University of Pennsylvania. Moreover, even those who have a science degree are often teaching outside their area of expertise. In the physical sciences—including chemistry and physics—60% of the instructors don’t have a major or minor in the subjects they teach. 请考虑一下这个问题的根本原因:高素质理科教师严重不足。

令人震惊的是,再教一门以上 理科课程的中学教师中,竟有 28%的人不是 主修或辅修理科专业出身的,这个结果出自于 宾夕法尼亚大学教育学教授理查德 M 英格索尔的调查。

更有甚者,即使有些老师拥有理科 学位,所教的课程也与其专业大不相干。

在自然科学方面,包括化学和物理,高达 60%的教 师没有主修或辅修过他们所教授的课程。

Earlier this year. The Teaching Commission, headed by former IBM Chairman Louis Gerstner7, argued in a report that the US must pay science teachers more if it hopes to solve this problem. But that isn’t likely to happen without leadership from Washington. As things stand now, science graduates simply have too many lucrative alternatives to teaching.

今年年初,由 IBM 总裁路易斯 格斯特纳领导的教学委员会在一份报告中提到:要解决这个 歌问题,必须提高理科教师的报酬。


现在的 情况往往是理科毕业生有更多赚钱的工作机会,因此不愿意当教师。

As America sleeps, other nations that have long since recognized the critical importance of science and technology education to their futures are moving ahead. The US has grasped this lesson in many Olympic sports, where strong national programs have been established to ensure that America has world-class athletes. Unless the nation applies he same approach to science education, it stands to lose far more than a few gold medals. It could ultimately squander its leadership of the world economy. 美国举步不前时, 其他早就意识到科技教育对未来举足轻重的国家却在前进之中, 在奥运会 的多个项目中美国已经接受教训,推行强大的举国计划以确保美国拥有的世界顶尖的运动 员。

在理科教育方面,如果美国不采纳同样的方法,最终失去的就不仅仅是几枚金牌,而是 世界经济的领导地位。


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