Passage 1 Careers for women should not be any different from careers for men. Decision about gainful and satisfying employment for women should be made on the basis of individual interests and abilities. A variety of factors can help women find better jobs. Women need better career planning and counseling. They should be encouraged to develop personal goals that will enable them to compete for good jobs in light of their abilities, desires and training. Career guidance should begin at the junior high school level, or even at the elementary school level, with the assistance of counselors, teachers and parents. Some women must change their career aspirations. Since openings in the usual women's occupations will not be sufficient to supply jobs for all women seeking work, they must choose alternatives in other occupations. Many of these jobs may pay higher wages and offer greater opportunities for promotion. In the past, too many women were forced to settle for second best. Others were willing to settle for inferior jobs because they felt that their stay in the labor force would be temporary. However, the situation is changing as more and more women become aware of the possibility of combining the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker with that of paid worker. Employer's attitudes about women's roles and desires to work need to be changed. Perhaps, the overriding (首要的) factors and the myths that employers, policymakers, and others in our society have unfairly associated with the work patterns of women. One such myth is that women are not seriously attached to the labor force, as they work only for pocket money. However, one recent study shows that of the 33 million women in the labor force, more than half are working because of pressing economic needs. These women comprise a group who are either single, widowed, divorced, separated, or married to men with incomes of less than $ 5,000 a year. Women constitute nearly two-fifths of the work force. However, because of foregone(已往的) conclusions about their interests and abilities, women are unfairly restricted in the kinds of jobs they hold. They are concentrated on the less rewarding, lower paying occupations with fewer chances for advancement. Personal choice in the world of work will begin to become a reality when the guidance counselor, the shop assistant, the plant employer, and women themselves are able to develop an appreciation for the differences in personal abilities and desires.37. In this essay, the author advises women____ [A] to stay at home and do housework[B] to take jobs based on their interests and capability[C] to remain in jobs usually taken by women[D] to be satisfied with second best jobs38. The author puts forward the suggestion for women that____ [A] women should devote themselves to serving the husbands and children
[B] women should plan their own life and careers[C] women should have jobs which offer more time and space for themselves[D] women should, first of all, be good housewives whatever they do39. According to this essay, women have often settled for inferior jobs because____ [A] they want to work less than men[B] inferior jobs are less tiring[C] they don't expect to work very long[D] they think they are inferior to men40. Why were women restricted in lower paying occupations with fewer chances for advancement?____ [A] Because of their personal abilities.[B] Because of their personal desires.[C] Because of the previous conclusion about their interests and abilities.[D] Because of the social prejudice.41. What is the main idea of the passage?____ [A] Equality for men and women in employment is easier said than done.[B] There should not be any difference between careers for men and women.[C] Women should not have a sense of inferiority.[D] Women are being treated unfairly in employment.Passage 2 When your family wants to buy or replace a car, a television, or a washing machine, you find
the money either from savings or by borrowing from the bank, a hire-purchase company or perhaps a friend. Similarly, a family buying a house for the first time commonly borrows from a building society. If you own a private business, a garage, shop, or a farm, you will need, from time to time, to buy new equipment, new furnishings, or, if you are doing well, new premises so that you can expand. Some of the cost you can meet from the profits you have kept in the business, but often you will need help. You will go to your bank, to a finance house, or perhaps to a relative or friend for finance provided from his savings. When you borrow money or raise money in this way you pay it back out of future profits, Many large businesses, however, need cash for new developments or expansion far in excess of what can be provided from their profits or from private sources of capital. A new factory, an oil-well in the North Sea, can cost millions of pounds to construct and bring into production; a new design of car or brand of medicine likewise can cost millions of pounds to design, develop, test and market before it reaches the stage where it earns a profit. Often these costs can be met from profits earned in other parts of the business or from reserves built up from profits earned in past years. Sometimes, however, it is necessary, and often it may be more advantageous, to raise new money from other sources. There can be little prospect of raising the sort of sums needed by major businesses from friends or acquaintances, and generally the banks are reluctant to provide sufficient cash on a permanent basis for long-term projects, though they will provide short-term finance. Such companies can sometimes only raise the money they need to stay in the front of industry and develop new products and sources of production by turning to the public at large and inviting it to lend them cash or take a share in the business in exchange for a share in future profits. This they can do by offering shares in the business or loan capital through The Stock Exchange.42. If you want to buy a house, which of the following could you do?____ [A] Borrow money from a building society.[B] Borrow money from a bank.[C] Take money from your savings.[D] Ask a friend to help you.43. The normal way for a small business financing is to____ [A] use profits from the business[B] borrow from friends[C] borrow from a hire-purchase company
[D] arrange a bank loan44. Large businesses need to borrow huge amounts of money because____ [A] developing and producing a new product takes a long time[B] they can never make enough profit[C] developing and expanding production costs a lot of money[D] running something like an oil-well is very expensive.45. Large business gets new money to pay for major development by____ [A] borrowing from friends[B] involving banks[C] borrowing from building societies[D] selling shares of their company46. According to the passage, which of the following is true?____ [A] The small company can only get financial help from the bank.[B] The bank won't lend money to individuals.[C] The bank is pleased to provide long-term finance for the large businesses.[D] The bank can provide temporary loan for the large businesses.